caelum

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See also: Caelum

Latin[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Classical) IPA(key): /ˈkae̯.lum/, [ˈkäe̯ɫ̪ʊ̃ˑ]
  • (Ecclesiastical) IPA(key): /ˈt͡ʃe.lum/, [ˈt͡ʃɛːlum]
  • (file)

Etymology 1[edit]

caelum (sky)

Uncertain; possibly from Proto-Italic *kailom (with a partial gender change to masculine), from Proto-Indo-European *keh₂i-lom (whole), from *keh₂i-, originating in the augural sphere and indicating "the whole" as opposed to templum (the part) and cognate to Latin caelebs, sincērus, caerimōnia, Russian це́лый (célyj, whole, intact), English whole, holy. May be cognate of Oscan 𐌊𐌀𐌝𐌋𐌀 (kaíla, perh. a kind of building). The shift from neuter to masculine is irregular.[1]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

caelum n or m (genitive caelī); second declension

  1. (vault of) heaven
    • 8 CE, Ovid, Fasti 3.505-506:
      illa ego sum, cui tū solitus prōmittere caelum. eī mihi, prō caelō quālia dōna ferō!
      I am the woman to whom you used to promise heaven. Alas, in place of heaven what kind of gifts do I get? (trans. Anne and Peter Wiseman, 2011)
    • 405, Jerome and others, Vulgate, Genesis 28:12
      viditque in somnis scalam stantem super terram et cacumen illius tangens caelum
      And he saw in his dream a ladder set up on the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven
  2. sky
    • Horace, Epistles I.xi.27 [1] (translation Eugene Ehrlich, Say It in Latin, →ISBN
      Caelum non animum mutant qui trans mare currunt.
      Those who cross the sea change the sky not their spirits.
    • c. 15 BCE, Vitruvius, De architectura 4.5.1:
      Regiones autem, quas debent spectare aedes sacrae deorum inmortalium, sic erunt constituendae, uti, si nulla ratio inpedierit liberaque fuerit potestas, aedis signumque quod erit in cella conlocatum, spectet ad vespertinam caeli regionem, uti, qui adierint ad aram immolantes aut sacrificia facientes, spectent ad partem caeli orientis et simulacrum, quod erit in aede, et ita vota suscipientes contueantur aedem et orientem caeli ipsaque simulacra videantur exorientia contueri supplicantes et sacrificantes, quod aras omnes deorum necesse esse videatur ad orientem spectare.
      The directions which the sacred temples of the immortal gods ought to face should be so arranged that, if there is no reason to the contrary and the architect has full power, the temple and the image in the shrine should face to the west, in order that those who approach the altar to offer or to sacrifice may see to the east the image in the shrine, and that in making their vows they may behold the temple and the east[ern part of the sky], and that the images themselves may appear rising in the east to behold such as offer prayer and sacrifice.[2]
  3. atmosphere, climate, weather
Declension[edit]

Second-declension noun (neuter or otherwise).

Case Singular Plural
Nominative caelum caelī
Genitive caelī caelōrum
Dative caelō caelīs
Accusative caelum caelōs
Ablative caelō caelīs
Vocative caelum caelī

When the singular was masculine, it was caelus. The plural was rare and existed only in poetic use before the Christian era, but it is common in ecclesiastical Latin, and the plural has always been masculine.

Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “caelum”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 80-81
  2. ^ Frazer, James George. 2015. Fastorum libri sex: The Fasti of Ovid. Cambridge Library Collection. Page 367.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Italic *kaid(s)lom, from Proto-Indo-European *kh₂eyd- (cut, hew) (whence also caedō (I cut)).[1]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

caelum n (genitive caelī); second declension

  1. chisel
Declension[edit]

Second-declension noun (neuter).

Case Singular Plural
Nominative caelum caela
Genitive caelī caelōrum
Dative caelō caelīs
Accusative caelum caela
Ablative caelō caelīs
Vocative caelum caela
Related terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • 1caelum”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • 2caelum”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • caelum”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • 1 caelum in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette
  • 2 caelum in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[2], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to raise the eyes to heaven; to look up to the sky: suspicere (in) caelum
    • to raise the eyes to heaven; to look up to the sky: oculos tollere, attollere ad caelum
    • climate: caelum or natura caeli
    • healthy climate: caelum salūbre, salubritas caeli (opp. grave, gravitas)
    • temperate climate: caeli temperatio
    • rough climate: caeli asperitas
    • variable climate: caeli varietas
    • the star-lit sky; the firmament: caelum astris distinctum et ornatum
    • the pole: vertex caeli, axis caeli, cardo caeli
    • a storm accompanied by heavy claps of thunder: tempestas cum magno fragore (caeli) tonitribusque (Liv. 1. 16)
    • the heavens are shaken by the thunder: caelum tonitru contremit
    • to extol, laud to the skies: laudibus aliquem (aliquid) in caelum ferre, efferre, tollere
    • to raise the hands to heaven (attitude of prayer): (supinas) manus ad caelum tendere
    • (ambiguous) to run its course in the sky: cursum conficere in caelo
    • (ambiguous) to be struck by lightning: de caelo tangi, percuti
    • (ambiguous) when it is growing dusk; towards evening: die, caelo vesperascente
    • (ambiguous) to observe the sky (i.e. the flight of birds, lightning, thunder, etc.: de caelo servare (Att. 4. 3. 3)
  • caelum”, in Harry Thurston Peck, editor (1898) Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • caelum”, in William Smith et al., editor (1890) A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, London: William Wayte. G. E. Marindin
  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “caedō, -ere”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 79-80