caelum

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See also: Caelum

Latin[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Classical) IPA(key): /ˈkae̯.lum/, [ˈkae̯.ɫũ]
  • (Ecclesiastical) IPA(key): /ˈt͡ʃɛ.lum/, [ˈt͡ʃɛː.lum]
  • (file)

Etymology 1[edit]

caelum (sky)

From Proto-Italic *kailom (cognate of Oscan 𐌊𐌀𐌝𐌋𐌀 (kaíla, kind of building)), from Proto-Indo-European *keh₂i-lom (whole), from *keh₂i-.[1]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

caelum n (genitive caelī); second declension

  1. (vault of) heaven
    • 405, Jerome and others, Vulgate, Genesis 28:12
      viditque in somnis scalam stantem super terram et cacumen illius tangens caelum
      And he saw in his dream a ladder set up on the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven
  2. sky
    • Horace, Epistles I.xi.27 [1] (translation Eugene Ehrlich, Say It in Latin, →ISBN
      Caelum non animum mutant qui trans mare currunt.
      Those who cross the sea change the sky not their spirits.
  3. atmosphere, climate, weather
Inflection[edit]

Second declension.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative caelum caelī
Genitive caelī caelōrum
Dative caelō caelīs
Accusative caelum caelōs
Ablative caelō caelīs
Vocative caelum caelī

The plural is masculine.

Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Italic *kaid(s)lom, from Proto-Indo-European *kh₂eyd- (cut, hew) (whence also caedō (I cut)).[2]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

caelum n (genitive caelī); second declension

  1. chisel
Inflection[edit]

Second declension.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative caelum caela
Genitive caelī caelōrum
Dative caelō caelīs
Accusative caelum caela
Ablative caelō caelīs
Vocative caelum caela
Related terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • 1caelum in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • 2caelum in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • caelum in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • 1 caelum in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • 2 caelum in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meissner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[2], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to raise the eyes to heaven; to look up to the sky: suspicere (in) caelum
    • to raise the eyes to heaven; to look up to the sky: oculos tollere, attollere ad caelum
    • climate: caelum or natura caeli
    • healthy climate: caelum salūbre, salubritas caeli (opp. grave, gravitas)
    • temperate climate: caeli temperatio
    • rough climate: caeli asperitas
    • variable climate: caeli varietas
    • the star-lit sky; the firmament: caelum astris distinctum et ornatum
    • the pole: vertex caeli, axis caeli, cardo caeli
    • a storm accompanied by heavy claps of thunder: tempestas cum magno fragore (caeli) tonitribusque (Liv. 1. 16)
    • the heavens are shaken by the thunder: caelum tonitru contremit
    • to extol, laud to the skies: laudibus aliquem (aliquid) in caelum ferre, efferre, tollere
    • to raise the hands to heaven (attitude of prayer): (supinas) manus ad caelum tendere
    • (ambiguous) to run its course in the sky: cursum conficere in caelo
    • (ambiguous) to be struck by lightning: de caelo tangi, percuti
    • (ambiguous) when it is growing dusk; towards evening: die, caelo vesperascente
    • (ambiguous) to observe the sky (i.e. the flight of birds, lightning, thunder, etc.: de caelo servare (Att. 4. 3. 3)
  • caelum in Harry Thurston Peck, editor (1898) Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • caelum in William Smith et al., editor (1890) A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, London: William Wayte. G. E. Marindin
  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “caelum”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 80-81
  2. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “caedō, -ere”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 79-80