caelum

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See also: Caelum

Latin[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

caelum (sky)

From Proto-Italic *kailom (cognate of Oscan 𐌊𐌀𐌝𐌋𐌀 ‎(kaíla, kind of building)), from Proto-Indo-European *keh₂i-lom ‎(whole), from *keh₂i-.[1]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

caelum n ‎(genitive caelī); second declension

  1. (vault of) heaven
    • 405, Jerome and others, Vulgate, Genesis 28:12
      viditque in somnis scalam stantem super terram et cacumen illius tangens caelum
      And he saw in his dream a ladder set up on the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven
  2. sky
    • Horace, Epistles I.xi.27 [1] (translation Eugene Ehrlich, Say It in Latin, ISBN 0709056257)
      Caelum non animum mutant qui trans mare currunt.
      Those who cross the sea change the sky not their spirits.
  3. atmosphere, climate, weather
Inflection[edit]

Second declension.

Case Singular Plural
nominative caelum caela
genitive caelī caelōrum
dative caelō caelīs
accusative caelum caela
ablative caelō caelīs
vocative caelum caela
Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Italic *kaid(s)lom, from Proto-Indo-European *kh₂eyd- ‎(cut, hew) (whence also caedō ‎(I cut)).[2]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

caelum n ‎(genitive caelī); second declension

  1. chisel
Inflection[edit]

Second declension.

Case Singular Plural
nominative caelum caela
genitive caelī caelōrum
dative caelō caelīs
accusative caelum caela
ablative caelō caelīs
vocative caelum caela
Related terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • 1caelum in Charlton T. Lewis & Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • 2caelum in Charlton T. Lewis & Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • caelum in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • 1 caelum” in Félix Gaffiot (1934), Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Paris: Hachette.
  • 2 caelum” in Félix Gaffiot (1934), Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Paris: Hachette.
  • Meissner, Carl; Auden, Henry William (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[2], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to raise the eyes to heaven; to look up to the sky: suspicere (in) caelum
    • to raise the eyes to heaven; to look up to the sky: oculos tollere, attollere ad caelum
    • climate: caelum or natura caeli
    • healthy climate: caelum salūbre, salubritas caeli (opp. grave, gravitas)
    • temperate climate: caeli temperatio
    • rough climate: caeli asperitas
    • variable climate: caeli varietas
    • the star-lit sky; the firmament: caelum astris distinctum et ornatum
    • the pole: vertex caeli, axis caeli, cardo caeli
    • a storm accompanied by heavy claps of thunder: tempestas cum magno fragore (caeli) tonitribusque (Liv. 1. 16)
    • the heavens are shaken by the thunder: caelum tonitru contremit
    • to extol, laud to the skies: laudibus aliquem (aliquid) in caelum ferre, efferre, tollere
    • to raise the hands to heaven (attitude of prayer): (supinas) manus ad caelum tendere
    • (ambiguous) to run its course in the sky: cursum conficere in caelo
    • (ambiguous) to be struck by lightning: de caelo tangi, percuti
    • (ambiguous) when it is growing dusk; towards evening: die, caelo vesperascente
    • (ambiguous) to observe the sky (i.e. the flight of birds, lightning, thunder, etc.: de caelo servare (Att. 4. 3. 3)
  • caelum in Harry Thurston Peck, editor (1898) Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • caelum in William Smith et al., editor (1890) A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, London: William Wayte. G. E. Marindin
  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “caelum”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 80-81
  2. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “caedō, -ere”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 79-80