daiļš

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See also: dails

Latvian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From an old (unattested) adjective *dailus, which yielded two parallel forms, a yo-stem adjective (> standard daiļš) and an o-stem adjective (> dialectal dails), from Proto-Baltic *day- with an extra suffix -l, from the o-grade form of Proto-Indo-European *dey-, *doy- ‎(to shine brightly, to glitter, to sparkle). There was some influence in the meaning of this word from a homophonous Proto-Indo-European stem *dey- ‎(to swing, to sway, to swirl; to rush), from which the uses of daiļš to mean “quick, industrious, diligent, skilled” (mostly in folk songs or tales). Cognates include Lithuanian dailùs ‎(pretty, beautiful, lovely, tasteful), Sanskrit दीद्यति ‎(didyati, to shine, to glitter, to sparkle), Ancient Greek δέατο ‎(déato, was visible, appeared, seemed), Irish river name Daol, from *doylā ‎(shining, bright).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Adjective[edit]

daiļš (def. daiļais, comp. daiļāks, sup. visdaiļākais; adv. daiļi)

  1. very beautiful, lovely, exquisite (corresponding to high aesthetic ideals, causng aesthetic pleasure)
    daiļš augumsbeautiful stature, body
    daiļa sejalovely, beautiful face
    daiļas rokaslovely, beautiful hands
    daiļš ziedsbeautiful, exquisite flower
    daiļais dzimums — the beautiful, fair sex (i.e., women)
    viss daiļais cilvēka dzīvē — all (that is) beautiful in human life
    visdaiļāko festivāla meiteni ievēlēs par festivāla skaistuma karalieni — the most beautiful girl in the festival was chosen as the festival's beauty queen
  2. beautiful, sublime, with profound meaning
    daiļa dvēselebeautiful soul
    veidot dzīvi saskanīgu un daiļu — to make (one's) life harmonious and beautiful
  3. (rare, folkloric) industrious, virtuous, good
    daiļa, daiļa tā meitiņa, kas darbiņu čakli veicgood, good is the girl who does her work diligently

Declension[edit]

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References[edit]

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “daiļš”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7