draugs

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English[edit]

Noun[edit]

draugs

  1. plural of draug

Anagrams[edit]


Icelandic[edit]

Noun[edit]

draugs

  1. indefinite genitive singular of draugur

Latvian[edit]

Draugi

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Balto-Slavic *draugas, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰrowgʰos (other person, second person), from the stem *dʰrewgʰ- (to be other, to be second). From the meaning “other, second,” two main meanings evolved: “friend” and “enemy, evil” (cf. the evolution of Latin hostis from “stranger” to “enemy” and hospes from “stranger” to “host”). In the Baltic and Slavic languages, only the “friend” meaning eventually survived. The older meaning of “other, second” for Latvian draugs is still sporadically attested in folk songs (draugs vīrs (another man); cf. also dialectal drauga bērns (stepchild)). Cognates include Lithuanian draũgas (friend, companion), Old Prussian draugiwaldūnen (co-heir) (< “other heir”), Proto-Slavic *drugъ (Old Church Slavonic дроугъ (drugŭ, friend), Belarusian, Ukrainian, Russian друг (drug), Russian друго́й (drugój, other) (< *drugъjь), Ukrainian дру́гий (drúhyj, other, second), Bulgarian дру́гъ (drúg, friend), друг (drug, other), Czech druh (friend), Czech druhý (other, second), Polish druh (friend), Polish drugi (second), Old Norse draugr (ghost), Old High German gitrog, German Trug (deception, fraud, illusion), Gothic 𐌲𐌰𐌳𐍂𐌰𐌿𐌷𐍄𐍃 (gadrauhts, warrior), Icelandic dróttinn (lord), Old English drihten (lord), Sanskrit द्रुह् (druh, evil demonic being, beast), द्रुह्वन् (drúhvan, hostile), Avestan 𐬛𐬭𐬎𐬑𐬱 (druxš, demonic being, evil incarnation), 𐬛𐬭𐬎𐬲𐬀𐬌𐬙𐬌 (družaiti, to tell lies, to tempt), Old Persian 𐎭𐎼𐎢𐎥 (drauga, lying, deceiving).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

(file)

Noun[edit]

draugs m (1st declension, feminine form: draudzene)

  1. friend (a person with whom one has a friendship)
    bernības, skolas draugschildhood, school friend
    tuvs draugsclose friend
    sirsnīgi draugisincere friends
    būt draugu pulkāto be in a circle of friends
    būt draugosto be frends (lit. in friends) (with someone)
    laulātais draugshusband (lit. married friend)
    dzīves, mūža draugshusband (lit. life friend; poetic)
    mājas draugsfriend of the house (someone who visits frequently)
    laimei vajadzīgs draugs, ar ko būtu daudz kā kopīga: gan sapņi un prieks, gan uzskati un rūpesfor happiness a friend is necessary, with whom there would be a lot in common: dreams and joys, opinions and concerns
    Ints un Zints dzīvo vienā mājā, mācās vienā skolā, vienā klasē un sēž vienā solā; abi saucas par draugiem un turas kopā kā divi dadžiInts and Zints live in the same house, study in the same class in the same school, and sit in the same bench; both call themselves friends and keep together like two thistles
  2. (of animals) friend (an animal with whom one has friendly relations; an animal which behaves in a friendly way towards people or other animals)
    četrkājainais draugsfour-legged friend
    zēns ar suni bija nešķirami draugithe boy and the dog were inseparable friends
    abi kaķi bija draugithe two cats were friends
  3. (of people) friend, admirer, lover (of something)
    dabas draugsa friend, lover of nature
    mūzikas draugimusic lovers
    grāmatu draugibook lovers
    kino draugu klubscinema lovers club

Declension[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “draugs”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7