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From incubō ; cf. also accumbō, concumbō, decumbō, succumbō.



incumbō (present infinitive incumbere, perfect active incumbuī); third conjugation, no passive

  1. I lay oneself upon; I lean or recline on something.
  2. I press down on, fall upon (e.g. one's sword)
    Ferro incumbere.
    Gladio incumbere.
    In gladium incumbere.
    To fall on his sword.

Usage notes[edit]

  • Constructed with in ("in"), ad ("to", "towards", "on"), super ("upon") or the dative, also with the accusative.
    Incumbere in parietem.
    To lean on a wall.


   Conjugation of incumbo (third conjugation, active only)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present incumbō incumbis incumbit incumbimus incumbitis incumbunt
imperfect incumbēbam incumbēbās incumbēbat incumbēbāmus incumbēbātis incumbēbant
future incumbam incumbēs incumbet incumbēmus incumbētis incumbent
perfect incumbuī incumbuistī incumbuit incumbuimus incumbuistis incumbuērunt, incumbuēre
pluperfect incumbueram incumbuerās incumbuerat incumbuerāmus incumbuerātis incumbuerant
future perfect incumbuerō incumbueris incumbuerit incumbuerimus incumbueritis incumbuerint
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present incumbam incumbās incumbat incumbāmus incumbātis incumbant
imperfect incumberem incumberēs incumberet incumberēmus incumberētis incumberent
perfect incumbuerim incumbuerīs incumbuerit incumbuerīmus incumbuerītis incumbuerint
pluperfect incumbuissem incumbuissēs incumbuisset incumbuissēmus incumbuissētis incumbuissent
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present incumbe incumbite
future incumbitō incumbitō incumbitōte incumbuntō
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives incumbere incumbuisse
participles incumbēns
verbal nouns gerund supine
nominative genitive dative/ablative accusative accusative ablative
incumbere incumbendī incumbendō incumbendum

Derived terms[edit]



  • incumbo in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • incumbo in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • incumbo in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meissner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to be energetic about, throw one's heart into a thing: incumbere in (ad) aliquid
    • to devote one's every thought to the state's welfare: in rem publicam omni cogitatione curaque incumbere (Fam. 10. 1. 2)
    • to carry on a war energetically: omni studio in (ad) bellum incumbere




  1. first-person singular present indicative of incumbir




  1. First-person singular (yo) present indicative form of incumbir.