naazhjool

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Navajo[edit]

Etymology[edit]

na- (atelic, circuital) + -z- (si-perfective 3rd person subject prefix) + -Ø- (classifier)-jool (neuter perfective stem of root -JOOL, “non-compact matter moves or lies”).

Verb[edit]

naazhjool

  1. they lie around somewhere, are located somewhere (non-compact matter as a wig, hay, wool)

Usage notes[edit]

This verb is limited to expression in the third person and refers to multiple items. Also occurs with distributive da- as ndaazhjool, refering to a plurality of objects lying in groups.

For a single item, use the verb shijool.

This is a neuter verb that uses only the perfective stem.

Conjugation[edit]

Paradigm: Neuter perfective (si), third person only.

PERFECTIVE singular plural dist. plural
3rd person (shijool) naazhjool ndaazhjool

See also[edit]

Navajo Classificatory Themes Plural objects lie around
(Handle stem)
Class Examples Handle Propel Moves
SRO generic Ø-ʼĄ́ Ø-NEʼ l-TSʼID naazʼą́
SFO rope; pairs; unknown;
conglomerate
Ø-LÁ ł / Ø -DÉÉL naazlá
FFO sheet, paper ł-TSOOZ Ø-ʼAH Ø-NAʼ naastsooz
SSO stick, pole Ø-TĄ́ ł-TʼEʼ Ø-KĘ́Ę́Z naaztą́
AnO animate, doll ł-TĮ́ Ø-GOʼ Ø-TŁIZH naaztį́
NCM wig, hay; fog ł / ł / Ø -JOOL naazhjool
MM butter; frog Ø-TŁÉÉʼ ł-YĘ́Ę́ZH naaztłééʼ
LPB load, burden Ø-YĮ́ naazyį́
PlO1 severality Ø-NIL ni-Ø -DEEʼ naaznil
PlO2 profusion Ø-JAAʼ ł-KAAD Ø-KAAD   naazhjaaʼ
OC severality/profusion
in a container
Ø-KĄ́ ł-DÁÁZ naazką́
Flat toppled wall,
blanket, bushes
naazkaad
Bulk boulder ł-ZHÓÓD l-ZHÓÓD naazhóód
Stream liquid, sand, dust Ø-ZIID naaziid
Navajo Positional Themes Plural objects in position
(Intrans. Neuter)
Position Number of
participants
Intransitive Transitive Root
Active Neuter Active Neuter
LIE 1 ni-Ø- Ø- ni-ł- ł- -TĮ́ naaztį́
2 -TÉÉZH naazhtéézh
3+ -JÉÉʼ naazhjééʼ
SIT 1 ni-Ø- Ø- ni-ł- ł- -DÁ naazdá
2 -KÉ naazké
3+ dini-Ø hí-(-TĄ́) dini-ł -BIN naháaztą́
STAND 1 ni-Ø- Ø- ni-ł- ł- -ZĮʼ naazį́