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Alternative forms[edit]


Unknown.[1][2][3] Variously compared to Proto-West Germanic *þrīstī (bold, daring),[4] Ancient Greek δριμύς (drimús, sharp; bitter)[1] and Old Church Slavonic дрѧхлъ (dręxlŭ, sad).[1]



trīstis (neuter trīste, comparative trīstior, superlative trīstissimus, adverb trīste); third-declension two-termination adjective

  1. sad, unhappy, melancholy, morose
    Synonyms: maestus, infēlīx, miser, aeger
    Antonyms: laetus, alacer, vīvus, fēlīx
    • 43 BCEc. 17 CE, Ovid, Fasti 5.315-316:
      excidit officium trīstī mihi. nūlla tuēbar
      rūra, nec in pretiō fertilis hortus erat.
      In sadness my duty was forgotten. I was guarding not
      the fields, neither was a fertile garden in value.
  2. sorrowful, mournful
  3. disagreeable, harsh, bitter (of taste)
  4. foul, offensive (of smell)


Third-declension two-termination adjective.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masc./Fem. Neuter Masc./Fem. Neuter
Nominative trīstis trīste trīstēs trīstia
Genitive trīstis trīstium
Dative trīstī trīstibus
Accusative trīstem trīste trīstēs
Ablative trīstī trīstibus
Vocative trīstis trīste trīstēs trīstia

Derived terms[edit]


Reflexes of the late variant trīstus:

  • Balkan Romance:
    • Romanian: trist
  • North Italian:
  • Italo-Romance:
  • Gallo-Romance:
  • Ibero-Romance:
  • Insular Romance:

Unsorted borrowings:


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Walde, Alois; Hofmann, Johann Baptist (1954), “tristis”, in Lateinisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (in German), volume II, 3rd edition, Heidelberg: Carl Winter, page 706
  2. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “trīstis”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 630
  3. ^ Ernout, Alfred; Meillet, Antoine (1985), “trīstis, -e”, in Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue latine: histoire des mots (in French), with additions and corrections of Jacques André, 4th edition, Paris: Klincksieck, published 2001, page 703
  4. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959), “1092”, in Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume 3, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 1092

Further reading[edit]

  • tristis”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • tristis”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • tristis in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • tristis in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • (ambiguous) an evil omen; presage of ill: omen infaustum, triste