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Borrowed from Ancient Greek τύρρις (túrrhis) (Hesychius), τύρσις (túrsis), likely ultimately a Mediterranean substrate loan. Compare Τυρρηνός (Turrhēnós, Etruscan). Also compare the tribe Taurini.[1]



turris f (genitive turris); third declension

  1. tower
  2. (Late Latin, chess) a rook


Third-declension noun (i-stem, accusative singular in -im or occasionally -em, ablative singular in or -e).

Case Singular Plural
Nominative turris turrēs
Genitive turris turrium
Dative turrī turribus
Accusative turrim
Ablative turrī
Vocative turris turrēs

Derived terms[edit]


  • Eastern Romance
    • Aromanian: turon
    • Romanian: turn
  • Gallo-Italic
  • Italo-Dalmatian
  • Old French: tor (see there for further descendants)
    • Middle French: tour
      • French: tour (see there for further descendants)
    • Walloon: tour
  • Old Occitan: torre
  • Rhaeto-Romance
  • Venetian: tor, tore
  • West Iberian
    • Navarro-Aragonese:
    • Old Leonese:
    • Old Galician-Portuguese: torre
      • Galician: torre
      • Portuguese: torre (see there for further descendants)
    • Old Spanish: torre
      • Spanish: torre (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Celtic:
  • Albanian: turrë

See also[edit]

Chess pieces in Latin · latrunculī, mīlitēs scaccōrum (layout · text)
♚ ♛ ♜ ♝ ♞ ♟
rēx rēgīna turris sagittifer eques pedes


  1. ^ Walde, Alois; Hofmann, Johann Baptist (1954), “turris”, in Lateinisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (in German), volume 2, 3rd edition, Heidelberg: Carl Winter, pages 719-20

Further reading[edit]

  • turris”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • turris”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • turris in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • turris in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to build a tower: turrim excitare, erigere, facere
    • to raise towers: turres instituere, exstruere
  • turris”, in Harry Thurston Peck, editor (1898) Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • turris”, in William Smith, editor (1854, 1857) A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, volume 1 & 2, London: Walton and Maberly
  • turris”, in William Smith et al., editor (1890) A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, London: William Wayte. G. E. Marindin
  • New Latin Grammar, Allen and Greenough, 1902.