zars

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Danish[edit]

Noun[edit]

zars c

  1. genitive singular indefinite of zar

Latvian[edit]

Koku zari
Grābekļa zari
Ķemmes zari

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Baltic *žer-, *žar-, from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰer- ‎(to beam, to shine, to glitter), apparently from an older meaning “beam, branch” (compare *gʰer- ‎(to have protrusions)) conserved in Latvian. Cognates include Lithuanian dialectal žarà, žãras ‎(branch, stem, trunk), Old Prussian sari ‎([zari], heat), Old Church Slavonic заря ‎(zarja), зоря ‎(zarja, zorja, dawn, dusk), Russian заря ‎(zarja), зоря ‎(zarjá, zorjá), dialectal also “flower, grass, plant,” Bulgarian зора ‎(zora), заря ‎(zorá, zarjá), Czech zaře, zoře, zora, Polish zorza, archaic zarza.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

(file)

Noun[edit]

zars m (1st declension)

  1. branch, twig, spray (part of a plant that grows from the stem or trunk and usually connects it with the leaves; this part together with its leaves and flowers)
    ozola, bērza, palmas zars — oak, birch, palm branch
    priežu zari — pine branches
    zaļš egles zars — green spruce branch
    ziedošs ceriņa zars — flowering spray of lilac
    kupls zars — leafy, leaf-covered branch
    kaili zari — naked (i.e., leafless) branches
    aizdedzināt kadiķa zaru — to burn a juniper twig
    mest zarus ugunskurā — to throw branches in the fire
    putns uzmetas uz zara — a bird alighted on a branch
    lapas birst no koku zariem — leaves fall off tree branches
    izzāģēt kokiem sausos zarus — to cut a tree's dry branches off
  2. tine, prong, teeth (pointed branching elements in a tool)
    grābekļa, dakšu zari — rake, fork tines, prongs
    ķemmes zari — comb teeth
    izlauzt, ielikt grābeklim zaru — to break, to set a rake tine
  3. branch (longitudinally branching part of a whole)
    viens Daugavas zars — one branch of the Daugava (river)
    Valdgales stacijā sliežu ceļš sadalās trijos zaros — at Valdagle station the train tracks split off in three branches
  4. branch (subgroup, split-off group)
    protestanti dalījās trīs galvenajos zaros: luterāņos, kalvinistos un anglikāņos — the Protestants split into three major branches: Lutherans, Calvinists and Anglicans
  5. branch (part of a family tree)
    straumēnu radniecības koks bija liels, un visos apkārtējos pagastos iespiedās tā zari — the Straumens family tree was big, its branches pushed into all the surrounding parishes

Declension[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “zars” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7