Appendix:Finnish verbs

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Personal verb forms[edit]

Indicative[edit]

Singular[edit]

first second third
present ajan I drive ajat you (sg.) drive ajaa he/she/it drives
past ajoin I drove ajoit you (sg.) drove ajoi he/she/it drove
perfect olen ajanut I have driven olet ajanut you (sg.) have driven on ajanut he/she/it has driven
pluperfect olin ajanut I had driven olit ajanut you (sg.) had driven oli ajanut he/she/it had driven
first second third
present en aja I do not drive et aja you (sg.) do not drive ei aja he/she/it does not drive
past en ajanut I did not drive et ajanut you (sg.) did not drive ei ajanut he/she/it did not drive
perfect en ole ajanut I have not driven et ole ajanut you (sg.) have not driven ei ole ajanut he/she/it has not driven
pluperfect en ollut ajanut I had not driven et ollut ajanut you (sg.) had not driven ei ollut ajanut he/she/it had not driven

Plural[edit]

first second third
present ajamme we drive ajatte you (pl.) drive ajavat they drive
past ajoimme we drove ajoitte you (pl.) drove ajoivat they drove
perfect olemme ajaneet we have driven olette ajaneet you (pl.) have driven ovat ajaneet they have driven
pluperfect olimme ajaneet we had driven olitte ajaneet you (pl.) had driven olivat ajaneet they had driven
first second third
present emme aja we do not drive ette aja you (pl.) do not drive eivät aja they drive
past emme ajaneet we did not drive ette ajaneet you (pl.) did not drive eivät ajaneet they drove
perfect emme ole ajaneet we have not driven ette ole ajaneet you (pl.) have not driven eivät ole ajaneet they have not driven
pluperfect emme olleet ajaneet we had not driven ette olleet ajaneet you (pl.) had not driven eivät olleet ajaneet they had not driven

Impersonal[edit]

In colloquial language, the impersonal, passive form has almost completely replaced the first person plural form: me ajammeme ajetaan.

impersonal
present ajetaan is (being) driven
past ajettiin was (being) driven
perfect on ajettu has been driven
pluperfect oli ajettu had been driven
impersonal
present ei ajeta is not (being) driven
past ei ajettu was not (being) driven
perfect ei ole ajettu1 has not been driven
pluperfect ei ollut ajettu2 had not been driven

1 Usually in colloquial speech one uses the "double passive" ei olla ajettu (passive voice ei olla + passive past part. ajettu) — non-standard.
2 Usually in colloquial speech one uses the "double passive" ei oltu ajettu (passive voice ei oltu + passive past part. ajettu) — non-standard.

Conditional[edit]

Corresponds to English would (and could): ajaisin jos voisin: I would drive if I could.

Singular[edit]

first second third
present ajaisin I would drive ajaisit1 you would drive ajaisi he/she/it would drive
perfect olisin ajanut I would have driven olisit ajanut you would have driven olisi ajanut he/she/it would have driven

1 Combined with the enclitic suffix -ko/-kö used in polite requests: Ajaisitko kovempaa?/Voisitko ajaa kovempaa? : Could you drive faster, please? or Haluaisin kupin kahvia. : I would like a cup of coffee.

first second third
present en ajaisi I would not drive et ajaisi you would not drive ei ajaisi he/she/it would not drive
perfect en olisi ajanut I would not have driven et olisi ajanut you would not have driven ei olisi ajanut he/she/it would not have driven

Plural[edit]

first second third
present ajaisimme we would drive ajaisitte you would drive ajaisivat they would drive
perfect olisimme ajaneet we would have driven olisitte ajaneet you would have driven olisivat ajaneet they would have driven
first second third
present emme ajaisi we would not drive ette ajaisi you would not drive eivät ajaisi they would not drive
perfect emme olisi ajaneet we would not have driven ette olisi ajaneet you would not have driven eivät olisi ajaneet they would not have driven

Impersonal[edit]

impersonal
present ajettaisiin would be driven
perfect olisi ajettu would have been driven
impersonal
present ei ajettaisi would not be driven
perfect ei olisi ajettu would not have been driven

Imperative[edit]

Used to express commands.

Singular[edit]

First-person singular forms do not exist.

second third
present aja drive! ajakoon
perfect ole ajanut have driven! olkoon ajanut
second third
present älä aja do not drive! älköön ajako
perfect älä ole ajanut älköön olko ajanut

Plural[edit]

first second third
present ajakaamme ajakaa ajakoot
perfect olkaamme ajaneet olkaa ajaneet olkoot ajaneet
first second third
present älkäämme ajako älkää ajako älkööt ajako
perfect älkäämme olko ajaneet älkää olko ajaneet älkööt olko ajaneet

Impersonal[edit]

impersonal
present ajettakoon
perfect olkoon ajettu
impersonal
present älköön ajettako
perfect älköön olko ajettu

Potential[edit]

Corresponds to English may, probably, it is possible that etc. This mood is rarely in colloquial language, where adverbs like kai, luultavasti, ehkä etc. are used instead: lienee ajanut: on kai ajanut.

Singular[edit]

first second third
present ajanen I probably drive ajanet you probably drive ajanee he/she/it probably drives
perfect lienen ajanut I probably have driven lienet ajanut you probably have driven lienee ajanut he/she/it probably has driven
first second third
present en ajane et ajane ei ajane
perfect en liene ajanut et liene ajanut ei liene ajanut

Plural[edit]

first second third
present ajanemme ajanette ajanevat
perfect lienemme ajaneet lienette ajaneet lienevät ajaneet
first second third
present emme ajane ette ajane eivät ajane
perfect emme liene ajaneet ette liene ajaneet eivät liene ajaneet

Impersonal[edit]

impersonal
present ajettaneen
perfect lienee ajettu
impersonal
present ei ajettane
perfect ei liene ajettu

Optative[edit]

Similar to imperative. Both poetic and archaic. Only a few personal forms are used, third person is identical to imperative.

Singular[edit]

second third
present ajaos ajakoon
perfect ollos ajanut olkoon ajanut
second third
present ällös aja älköön ajako
perfect ällös ollo ajanut älköön olko ajanut

Plural[edit]

third
present ajakoot
perfect olkoot ajanut
third
present älkööt ajako
perfect älkööt olko ajanut

Eventive[edit]

Combination of conditional and potential: ajan (I drive) → ajaneisin (I probably would drive); used in the Finnish national epic Kalevala.

Nominal verb forms[edit]

Infinitives[edit]

infinitive voice case
I ajaa to drive
I (long) ajaakseni For the purpose of me driving
ajaaksesi
ajaakseen
ajaaksemme
ajaaksenne
ajaakseen
II active inessive ajaessa when driving
instructive ajaen while/by driving
passive inessive ajettaessa when one drives; when sb/sth is being driven
III active inessive ajamassa olin ajamassa: I was driving
elative ajamasta lakkasin ajamasta: I stopped driving
illative ajamaan lähdin ajamaan: I went to drive
adessive ajamalla by driving
abessive ajamatta without driving; olin ajamatta viikon: I did not drive for a week
instructive ajaman sinun on ajaman: you must drive (dated)
passive instructive ajettaman tätä autoa on ajettaman: one has to drive this car (dated)
IV nominative ajaminen1 sinun on ajaminen: you must drive (dated)
partitive ajamista sinne ei ole ajamista
V ajamaisillani olin ajamaisillani: I was about to drive
ajamaisillasi
ajamaisillaan
ajamaisillansa
ajamaisillamme
ajamaisillanne
ajamaisillaan
ajamaisillansa

1 Do not confuse with verbal nouns constructed with the suffix -minen: ajaminen → driving (a gerund).

Participles[edit]

All participles can be inflected like nouns, and can be used as adjectives. Many participles are in fact used as independent adjectives: syötävä: edible, kuollut: dead etc.

Active present participle[edit]

Corresponds to English -ing before noun: kovaa ajava auto: fast driving car. The construct on + active present participle corresponds to English "shall" in poetic sense: hän on huomenna ajava autoa : he shall drive the car tomorrow.

case singular plural
nominative ajava ajavat
genitive ajavan ajavien
ajavain
partitive ajavaa ajavia
accusative ajava ajavat
ajavan
inessive ajavassa ajavissa
elative ajavasta ajavista
illative ajavaan ajaviin
adessive ajavalla ajavilla
ablative ajavalta ajavilta
allative ajavalle ajaville
essive ajavana ajavina
translative ajavaksi ajaviksi
instructive ajavin
abessive ajavatta ajavitta
comitative ajavine

Passive present participle[edit]

Corresponds to English -able/-ible before noun: ajettava auto: drivable car. Also on + passive present participle is used to denote obligation: minun on ajettava autoa: I must drive the car.

case singular plural
nominative ajettava ajettavat
genitive ajettavan ajettavien
ajettavain
partitive ajettavaa ajettavia
accusative ajettava ajettavat
ajettavan
inessive ajettavassa ajettavissa
elative ajettavasta ajettavista
illative ajettavaan ajettaviin
adessive ajettavalla ajettavilla
ablative ajettavalta ajettavilta
allative ajettavalle ajettaville
essive ajettavana ajettavina
translative ajettavaksi ajettaviksi
instructive ajettavin
abessive ajettavatta ajettavitta
comitative ajettavine

Active past participle[edit]

Used to build active compound tenses, corresponds to English past participle: olen ajanut: I have driven; ohitsemme ajanut auto kääntyi vasemmalle: the car that passed us turned left.

case singular plural
nominative ajanut ajaneet
genitive ajaneen ajaneiden
ajaneitten
partitive ajanutta ajaneita
accusative ajanut ajaneet
ajaneen
inessive ajaneessa ajaneissa
elative ajaneesta ajaneista
illative ajaneeseen ajaneisiin
ajaneihin
adessive ajaneella ajaneilla
ablative ajaneelta ajaneilta
allative ajaneelle ajaneille
essive ajaneena ajaneina
translative ajaneeksi ajaneiksi
instructive ajanein
abessive ajaneetta ajaneitta
comitative ajaneine

Passive past participle[edit]

Used to build passive compound tenses. When used as an adjective, corresponds to adjective-like English past participles. tätä autoa on ajettu: this car has been driven

case singular plural
nominative ajettu ajetut
genitive ajetun ajettujen
partitive ajettua ajettuja
accusative ajettu ajetut
ajetun
inessive ajetussa ajetuissa
elative ajetusta ajetuista
illative ajettun ajettuihin
adessive ajetulla ajetuilla
ablative ajetulta ajetuilta
allative ajetulle ajetuille
essive ajettuna ajettuina
translative ajetuksi ajetuiksi
instructive ajetuin
abessive ajetutta ajetuitta
comitative ajettuine

Agent participle[edit]

Used to denote the object of action; usually with a possessive suffix: minun ajamani auto: the car I drove/have driven. Not used with all verbs.

case singular plural
nominative ajama ajamat
genitive ajaman ajamien
ajamain
partitive ajamaa ajamia
accusative ajama ajamat
ajaman
inessive ajamassa ajamissa
elative ajamasta ajamista
illative ajamaan ajamiin
adessive ajamalla ajamilla
ablative ajamalta ajamilta
allative ajamalle ajamille
essive ajamana ajamina
translative ajamaksi ajamiksi
instructive ajamin
abessive ajamatta ajamitta
comitative ajamine

Negative participle[edit]

Negation of the other participles, corresponds English un-/not + past participle.

case singular plural
nominative ajamaton ajamattomat
genitive ajamattoman ajamattomien
ajamatonten
partitive ajamatonta ajamattomia
accusative ajamaton ajamattomat
ajamattoman
inessive ajamattomassa ajamattomissa
elative ajamattomasta ajamattomista
illative ajamattomaan ajamattomiin
adessive ajamattomalla ajamattomilla
ablative ajamattomalta ajamattomilta
allative ajamattomalle ajamattomille
essive ajamattomana ajamattomina
translative ajamattomaksi ajamattomiksi
instructive ajamattomin
abessive ajamattomatta ajamattomitta
comitative ajamattomine

Negative verbs[edit]

These are the verb forms to express negation in Finnish, those beginning with e express simply denial (You are not) and those beginning with ä express negative imperative (Don't be!). Note that there is no infinitive for these verb forms. These change the meaning of some pronouns, such as kukaan and mikään and adverbs, such as koskaan, ikinä, välttämättä.