sacīt

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Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From *sakīti, from Proto-Baltic *sek-, *sak-, from Proto-Indo-European *sekʷ- (to sniff out a trail, to chase, to look for). The meaning changes may have been: “to chase, to look for” > “to follow” > “to follow (with words, after what someone else said)” > “to say.” Cognates include Lithuanian sakýti, Old Norse segja, German sagen (< *sokʷē-), Ancient Greek ἐν(ν)έπω (en(n)épō, to narrate, to tell, to relate) (< *en-sekʷ-), Latin inquam (to say).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

sacīt tr., 3rd conj., pres. saku, saki, saka, past sacīju

  1. to say, tell (to express something, especially something short, orally)
    sacīt kaut ko klusā balsī — to say something in a low voice
    sacīt patiesību — to tell the truth
    sacīt labus vārdus — to say good words
    nesacīt nekā — to say nothing
    sacīt, teikt labrītu (labdienu, labvakaru) — to say good morning (good day, good evening)
    sacīt, teikt paldies — to say thank you
    “Ej vien”, Liene gribēja sacīt, bet mēle viņai nekustējās — “Go alone,” Liene wanted to say, but (her) tongue did not move
  2. to say, to tell (to make something known, to inform about something)
    nesacīt nevienam savu adresi — to not tell anyone (one's) address
  3. to say, to tell, to order, to warn
    nav divreiz jāsaka — there is no need to say it twice (i.e., the order will be followed)
    ja tu man neatdosi parādu, no ciemata tevi ārā nelaidīšu, to es tev saku! — if you don't pay me the debt, I won't let you leave the village, I'm telling you!
  4. to say (to have and/or express an opinion)
    sacīt savus vārdus — to tell one's opinion (lit. to say one's words)
    ko tu par to saki? — what do you say about that?
  5. to say (to express something in a work of art, or in a written text)
    dzejnieks, sakot savu sakāmo, katrreiz no jauna mēģina risināt arī mākslinieciskus mērķus — the poet, saying what he has to say, every time tries again to get the artistic goals
    ieskatīsimies enciklopēdijā: tur skaidri un gaiši sacīts, ka... — let's look in the enciclopedia: there it is said plainly and clearly that...
  6. (in the debitive 3rd person) it must be said, it must be admitted, I have to say (that...)
    jāsaka, reizēm dzejnieka lugās patiešām ir izšķērdīga dzejas tēlu bagātībaI have to say, sometimes there really is a wealth of wasteful poetic images in the poet's plays
  7. (figuratively) to say (to express non-orally, with one's actions, facial expressions, etc.)
    ko tu man saki ar deju šo? — what are you saying to me with this dance?
    barons paskatījās runātājā ar skatu, kas skaidri sacīja: “tārps” — the baron looked at the speaker with a look that clearly said: “(you) worm”
  8. (figuratively) to say (to be, to happen in such a way that some conclusion or information can be deduced, obtained)
    šis lietus tagad sapurina visus, cilvēkus, kustoņus un augus, un saka: vasara ir vēl tikai pašā sākumā, skatieties un priecājieties — this rain now cheers everything up, people, animals and plants, and says: summer is still only in the beginning, look and rejoice
  9. (in the combination nesacīt nekā, nesacīt neko) to not reproach, to not condemn, to not complain (lit. to say nothing)
    sieva nekā liela nesacīs pat tad, ja citi vedīs mājās lašus, bet viņš slaistīsies pa malu... viņa taču arī zina, ka labāktās zvejas vietas aizņemtas — (his) wife won't say anything even if the others bring home salmon while he sits idly on the coast... she knows, after all, that the best fishing places are taken
  10. (dated) to call, to consider (something as something else)
    saka ozolu cietu koku — (they) say, consider oak a solid tree
    Vasaraudzis liek visu Andra vainā, Andris atkal saka zirga vainu — Vasaraudzis put all the blame in Andris, Andris in turn said, called the horse guilty (= said that the horse was to blame)

Conjugation[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

The verbs sacīt and teikt seem to be near-perfect synonyms. Note, however, that the present tense forms of teikt are often not used; the corresponding forms of sacīt are much more frequent.

Synonyms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

prefixed verbs:
other derived terms:

References[edit]

  1. ^ “sacīt” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7