βάρβαρος

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Ancient Greek[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Onomatopoeic: from the perceived βαρ-βαρ (bar-bar) sounds incomprehensible to Ancient Greeks and spoken by foreigners.[1] In this sense, similar to modern English blah blah.

For the semantic development, compare Arabic عَجَم (ʿajam, non-Arab; Persian), from the root ع ج م (ʿ-j-m), referring to people who speak unclearly.

Pronunciation[edit]

 
  • (5th BCE Attic) IPA(key): /bár.ba.ros/
  • (1st CE Egyptian) IPA(key): /ˈbar.ba.ros/
  • (4th CE Koine) IPA(key): /ˈβar.βa.ros/
  • (10th CE Byzantine) IPA(key): /ˈvar.va.ros/
  • (15th CE Constantinopolitan) IPA(key): /ˈvar.va.ros/
  • Adjective[edit]

    βᾰ́ρβᾰρος (bárbarosm, f (neuter βᾰ́ρβᾰρον); second declension (Attic, Ionic, Koine)

    1. non-Greek-speaking, foreign
      1. (in the plural) non-Greek peoples
        1. Medes or Persians
          • 430 BCE – 354 BCE, Xenophon, Anabasis 1.2.14
            καὶ λέγεται δεηθῆναι ἡ Κίλισσα Κύρου ἐπιδεῖξαι τὸ στράτευμα αὐτῇ: βουλόμενος οὖν ἐπιδεῖξαι ἐξέτασιν ποιεῖται ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ τῶν Ἑλλήνων καὶ τῶν βαρβάρων.
            kaì légetai deēthênai hē Kílissa Kúrou epideîxai tò stráteuma autêi: boulómenos oûn epideîxai exétasin poieîtai en tôi pedíōi tôn Hellḗnōn kaì tôn barbárōn.
            And it is said that the Cilician [queen] asked Cyrus to show her his troops. So since he wanted to show them to her, he held a review of the Greeks and Persians in the field.
    2. barbaric, brutal, rude

    Inflection[edit]

    Derived terms[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ Babiniotis, Georgios (2008) Λεξικό της νέας ελληνικής γλώσσας [Modern Greek Dictionary] (in Greek), 3rd edition, Athens: Lexicology Centre

    Greek[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Ancient Greek βάρβαρος (bárbaros)

    Noun[edit]

    βάρβαρος (várvarosm (plural βάρβαροι)

    1. barbarian

    Declension[edit]

    Adjective[edit]

    βάρβαρος (várvarosm (feminine βάρβαρη, neuter βάρβαρο)

    1. barbarous, barbaric, uncivilised

    Declension[edit]