φαίνω

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Ancient Greek[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Hellenic *pʰáňňō, from Proto-Indo-European *bʰn̥h₂ye-, from *bʰeh₂- (to shine).

Pronunciation[edit]

 
  • (5th BCE Attic) IPA(key): /pʰaí̯.nɔː/
  • (1st CE Egyptian) IPA(key): /ˈpʰɛ.no/
  • (4th CE Koine) IPA(key): /ˈɸɛ.no/
  • (10th CE Byzantine) IPA(key): /ˈfe.no/
  • (15th CE Constantinopolitan) IPA(key): /ˈfe.no/
  • Verb[edit]

    φαίνω (phaínō)

    1. (transitive) I cause to appear, bring to light; I show, uncover, reveal
      • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 2.324
        ἡμῖν μὲν τόδ᾽ ἔφηνε τέρας μέγα μητίετα Ζεὺς ὄψιμον ὀψιτέλεστον
        hēmîn mèn tód᾽ éphēne téras méga mētíeta Zeùs ópsimon opsitéleston
        To us Zeus the counsellor has showed this great sign
      1. (transitive) I make known, reveal, disclose
        • 429 BCE, Sophocles, Oedipus the King 1229
          ὅσα κεύθει, τὰ δ᾽ αὐτίκ᾽ εἰς τὸ φῶς φανεῖ κακὰ ἑκόντα κοὐκ ἄκοντα.
          hósa keúthei, tà d᾽ autík᾽ eis tò phôs phaneî kakà hekónta kouk ákonta.
          So many are the ills that this house shrouds, or will soon bring to light, ills wrought not unwillingly but on purpose.
      2. (of sound)
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Odyssey 8.499
          ὁ δ᾽ ὁρμηθεὶς θεοῦ ἤρχετο, φαῖνε δ᾽ ἀοιδήν
          ho d᾽ hormētheìs theoû ḗrkheto, phaîne d᾽ aoidḗn
          And the minstrel, moved by the god, began, and let his song be heard.
      3. (transitive) Ι show forth, expound
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 18.295
          νήπιε μηκέτι ταῦτα νοήματα φαῖν᾽ ἐνὶ δήμῳ
          nḗpie mēkéti taûta noḗmata phaîn᾽ enì dḗmōi
          No longer, thou fool, do thou show forth counsels such as these among the folk.
      4. (transitive) I denounce
        • 424 BCE, Aristophanes, The Knights 300
          φανῶ σε τοῖς πρυτάνεσιν ἀδεκατεύτους τῶν θεῶν ἱερὰς ἔχοντα κοιλίας.
          phanô se toîs prutánesin adekateútous tôn theôn hieràs ékhonta koilías.
          I will denounce you to the Prytanes as the owner of sacred tripe, that has not paid tithe.
    2. (intransitive) I shine, give light
      • 423 BCE, Aristophanes, The Clouds 586
        ὁ δ᾽ ἥλιος [] οὐ φανεῖν ἔφασκεν ὑμῖν, εἰ στρατηγήσει Κλέων.
        ho d᾽ hḗlios [] ou phaneîn éphasken humîn, ei stratēgḗsei Kléōn.
        and the Sun [] declared he would not give you light, if Cleon should be your general.
    3. (passive) I appear; I shine
      • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Odyssey 18.68
        φάνεν δέ οἱ εὐρέες ὦμοι
        phánen dé hoi eurées ômoi
        and his broad shoulders were exposed
      1. I come into being
        • 406 BCE, Sophocles, Oedipus at Colonus 974
          εἰ δ᾽ αὖ φανεὶς δύστηνος, ὡς ἐγὼ 'φάνην
          ei d᾽ aû phaneìs dústēnos, hōs egṑ 'phánēn
          But if, having been born o misery—as I was born
      2. I come about
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 2.122
          τέλος δ᾽ οὔ πώ τι πέφανται
          télos d᾽ oú pṓ ti péphantai
          and no end thereof has yet been seen
      3. (copulative or control verb) I appear (to be)
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Odyssey 15.25
          ἀλλὰ σύ γ᾽ ἐλθὼν αὐτὸς ἐπιτρέψειας ἕκαστα δμῳάων ἥ τίς τοι ἀρίστη φαίνεται εἶναι
          allà sú g᾽ elthṑn autòs epitrépseias hékasta dmōiáōn hḗ tís toi arístē phaínetai eînai
          Nay, go, and thyself put all thy possessions in the charge of whatsoever one of the handmaids seems to be the best.
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 9.94
          Νέστωρ, οὗ καὶ πρόσθεν ἀρίστη φαίνετο βουλή
          Néstōr, hoû kaì prósthen arístē phaíneto boulḗ
          Nestor, whose rede had of old ever seemed the best
        1. (φαίνεται as interjection) yes; so it appears; apparently
          • 428 BCE – 347 BCE, Plato, Protagoras 332e
            ἐναντίον ἄρ᾽ ἐστὶν ἀφροσύνη σωφροσύνης;
            φαίνεται.
            enantíon ár᾽ estìn aphrosúnē sōphrosúnēs?
            phaínetai.
            Then the opposite of prudence is folly?
            Apparently.
        2. (late, impersonal) it seems

    Inflection[edit]

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