اگر

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See also: اکر

Persian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • ای(ay, ey) (dialectal)
  • ار(ar), ⁧گر(gar) (poetic)
  • اگه(age) (colloquial)

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Persian𐭧𐭲(ḥt /⁠agar⁠/). Compare Parthian𐭀𐭊(ag).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (file)
 
 

Readings
Classical reading? agar
Dari reading? agar
Iranian reading? agar
Tajik reading? agar

Conjunction[edit]

Dari اگر
Iranian Persian
Tajik агар

اگر (agar)

  1. if (used in a hypothetical or conditional statement)
    Synonyms: (formal)چنانچه(čenânče), (formal)اگر چنانچه(agar čenânče)
    اگر فارسی بلد بودم این کتاب را نمی‌خریدم.(more literary)
    agar fârsi balad budam in ketâb-râ ne-mi-xaridam.
    Had I known Persian [which I did not], I would not have bought this book.
    اگه فارسی بلد بودم این کتاب و نمی‌خریدم.(more colloquial)
    age fârsi balad budam in ketâb-o ne-mi-xaridam.
    If I knew Persian [which I did not], I wouldn't have bought this book.
    اگر می‌رفتی، محمد را می‌دیدی.(more literary)
    agar mi-rafti, mohammad-râ mi-didi.
    If you had gone [but you did not], you would have seen Mohammad.
    اگر رفته بودی، محمد را دیده بودی(more literary)
    agar rafte budi, mohammad-râ dide budi.
    If you had gone [but you did not], you would have seen Mohammad.
    اگر رفته باشی، محمد را می‌دیدی.(more literary)
    agar rafte bâši, mohammad-râ mi-didi.
    If you had gone [and perhaps you did], you would have seen Mohammad.
    اگر بروی، محمد را می‌بینی.(more literary)
    agar be-ravi, mohammad-râ mi-bini.
    If you go, you'll see Mohammad.
    • 10th century, Poem attributed to Shahid Balkhi:
      اگر غم را چو آتش دود بودی / جهان تاریک ماندی جاودانه
      agar ğam-râ čo âtaš dud budi / jahân târik mânadi jâvedâne
      If grief gave off smoke, as fire does / The world would remain forever in the dark.
    • late 14th century, Xāja Shams-ud-Dīn Moḥammad Ḥāfeẓ-e Shīrāzī, “⁧اگر آن ترک شیرازی به دست آرد دل ما را⁩ (Shirazi Turk)”, in دیوان حافظ:
      اگر آن ترک شیرازی به دست آرد دل ما را / به خال هندویش بخشم سمرقند و بخارا را
      agar ân tork-e širâzi be dast ârad del-e mâ-râ / be xâl-e hendu-yaš baxšam samarqand o boxârâ-râ
      If that Shirazi Turk accepts my heart in their hand / for their Indian mole I will give Samarkand and Bukhara.
    • c. 1650, Muḥammad Ṭāhir Ğanī Kašmīrī, translated by Mufti Mudasir Farooqi and Nusrat Bazaz, دیوان [Divān]:
      یار تا قتل چنین باشد اگر همراهم / سفر ملک عدم را ز خدا می‌خواهم
      yâr tâ qatl čonin bâšad agar hamrâh-am / safar-e molk-e 'adam râ ze xodâ mi-xâham.
      If my love accompanies me to my execution / A journey to the other world, I shall seek from God.
  2. since, given that, if
    اگر جواب را نمی‌دانی، چرا حرف می‌زنی؟(more literary)
    agar javâb-râ ne-mi-dâni, čerâ harf mi-zani?
    Since you don't know the answer, why are you talking?
    اگه جواب و نمی‌دونی، چرا حرف می‌زنی؟(more colloquial)
    age javâb-o ne-mi-duni, čerâ harf mi-zani?
    Since you don't know the answer, why are you talking?

Usage notes[edit]

  • اگر(agar) is associated with the following tenses in the verb of the if-clause (protasis):
    • When the hypothetical suggests something which cannot have been true in the past or is impossible to be fulfilled in the future, the past imperfect or pluperfect tenses are used for the verbs of both the if-clause and result clause.
    • When the hypothetical suggests something which may be fulfilled in the future, the present subjunctive (or sometimes simple past) tense is used for the verb of the if-clause.
    • When the hypothetical suggests something which may possibly have been true in the past, the past subjunctive tense is used for the verb of the if-clause.
    • When introducing a hypothetical which actually pertains to a real present state, with ⁧اگر(agar) having the meaning of "since", the present tense is used for the verb of the if-clause.
    • When used with an imperative in the result clause, the imperative is perceived to already imply that the hypothetical holds true, hence the present tense is used for the verb of the if-clause.
  • اگر(agar) can be omitted, especially colloquially.

Descendants[edit]

Urdu[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Inherited from Sanskrit अगरु (agaru).

Noun[edit]

اَگَرْ (agarm (Hindi spelling अगर)

  1. agarwood
Declension[edit]
Declension of ⁧اگر
singular plural
direct اَگَر(agar) اَگَر(agar)
oblique اَگَر(agar) اَگَروں(agarō̃)
vocative اَگَر(agar) اَگَرو(agarō)
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Borrowed from Classical Persianاگر(agar).

Conjunction[edit]

اَگَرْ (agar) (Hindi spelling अगर)

  1. if
    Synonym: (rare)یَدِی(yadī)
    اَگَرْ مَیں نے یَہ کِیَا ہوتَا تو ...
    agar ma͠i-ne ye kiyā hotā to
    If I had done this, then ...
Descendants[edit]
  • Phalura:
    Arabic script: ⁧اگر
    Latin script: ágar

Further reading[edit]

  • اگر”, in اُردُو لُغَت(urdū luġat) (in Urdu), Ministry of Education: Government of Pakistan, 2017.
  • Qureshi, Bashir Ahmad (1971), “اگر”, in Kitabistan's 20th Century Standard Dictionary‎, Lahore: Kitabistan Pub. Co., page 68
  • اگر”, in ریخْتَہ لُغَت(rexta luġat) - Rekhta Dictionary [Urdu dictionary with meanings in Hindi & English] (in English), Noida, India: Rekhta Foundation, 2024.
  • Turner, Ralph Lilley (1969–1985), “agaru”, in A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages, London: Oxford University Press, page 3