ऋण

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Hindi[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Sanskrit ऋण (ṛṇá).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ऋण (ŕṇm

  1. (finance) debt, loss

Sanskrit[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Indo-Iranian *Hr̥nás, *Harnás (debt, guilt).[1] Compare Avestan 𐬀𐬭𐬆𐬥𐬀𐬝𐬹𐬗𐬀𐬉𐬱𐬀 (arənat̰ caēša, punishing guilt), Khotanese ārra (ārra, fault).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Vedic) IPA(key): /r̩.ɳɐ́/
  • (Classical) IPA(key): /ˈr̩.ɳɐ/
  • Noun[edit]

    ऋण (ṛṇán

    1. anything due, obligation, duty, debt
    2. the obligations of a Brahman
    3. anything wanted or missed
    4. a debt of money, money owed
      • c. 1700 BCE – 1200 BCE, Ṛgveda 9.47.2
        कृतानीदस्य कर्त्वा चेतन्ते दस्युतर्हणा ।
        ऋणा च धृष्णुश्चयते ॥
        kṛtānīdasya kartvā cetante dasyutarhaṇā .
        ṛṇā ca dhṛṣṇuścayate .
        His task is done: his crushings of the Dasyus are made manifest:
        He sternly reckoneth their debts.
      • c. 200 BCE – 200 CE, Manusmṛti
    5. guilt
    6. (mathematics) a negative quality, minus
    7. water
    8. fort, stronghold

    Declension[edit]

    Neuter a-stem declension of ऋण (ṛṇá)
    Singular Dual Plural
    Nominative ऋणम्
    ṛṇám
    ऋणे
    ṛṇé
    ऋणानि / ऋणा¹
    ṛṇā́ni / ṛṇā́¹
    Vocative ऋण
    ṛ́ṇa
    ऋणे
    ṛ́ṇe
    ऋणानि / ऋणा¹
    ṛ́ṇāni / ṛ́ṇā¹
    Accusative ऋणम्
    ṛṇám
    ऋणे
    ṛṇé
    ऋणानि / ऋणा¹
    ṛṇā́ni / ṛṇā́¹
    Instrumental ऋणेन
    ṛṇéna
    ऋणाभ्याम्
    ṛṇā́bhyām
    ऋणैः / ऋणेभिः¹
    ṛṇaíḥ / ṛṇébhiḥ¹
    Dative ऋणाय
    ṛṇā́ya
    ऋणाभ्याम्
    ṛṇā́bhyām
    ऋणेभ्यः
    ṛṇébhyaḥ
    Ablative ऋणात्
    ṛṇā́t
    ऋणाभ्याम्
    ṛṇā́bhyām
    ऋणेभ्यः
    ṛṇébhyaḥ
    Genitive ऋणस्य
    ṛṇásya
    ऋणयोः
    ṛṇáyoḥ
    ऋणानाम्
    ṛṇā́nām
    Locative ऋणे
    ṛṇé
    ऋणयोः
    ṛṇáyoḥ
    ऋणेषु
    ṛṇéṣu
    Notes
    • ¹Vedic

    Adjective[edit]

    ऋण (ṛṇá)

    1. going, flying, fugitive
    2. guilty, having gone against or transgressed

    Declension[edit]

    Masculine a-stem declension of ऋण
    Nom. sg. ऋणः (ṛṇaḥ)
    Gen. sg. ऋणस्य (ṛṇasya)
    Singular Dual Plural
    Nominative ऋणः (ṛṇaḥ) ऋणौ (ṛṇau) ऋणाः (ṛṇāḥ)
    Vocative ऋण (ṛṇa) ऋणौ (ṛṇau) ऋणाः (ṛṇāḥ)
    Accusative ऋणम् (ṛṇam) ऋणौ (ṛṇau) ऋणान् (ṛṇān)
    Instrumental ऋणेन (ṛṇena) ऋणाभ्याम् (ṛṇābhyām) ऋणैः (ṛṇaiḥ)
    Dative ऋणाय (ṛṇāya) ऋणाभ्याम् (ṛṇābhyām) ऋणेभ्यः (ṛṇebhyaḥ)
    Ablative ऋणात् (ṛṇāt) ऋणाभ्याम् (ṛṇābhyām) ऋणेभ्यः (ṛṇebhyaḥ)
    Genitive ऋणस्य (ṛṇasya) ऋणयोः (ṛṇayoḥ) ऋणानाम् (ṛṇānām)
    Locative ऋणे (ṛṇe) ऋणयोः (ṛṇayoḥ) ऋणेषु (ṛṇeṣu)
    Feminine ā-stem declension of ऋण
    Nom. sg. ऋणा (ṛṇā)
    Gen. sg. ऋणायाः (ṛṇāyāḥ)
    Singular Dual Plural
    Nominative ऋणा (ṛṇā) ऋणे (ṛṇe) ऋणाः (ṛṇāḥ)
    Vocative ऋणे (ṛṇe) ऋणे (ṛṇe) ऋणाः (ṛṇāḥ)
    Accusative ऋणाम् (ṛṇām) ऋणे (ṛṇe) ऋणाः (ṛṇāḥ)
    Instrumental ऋणया (ṛṇayā) ऋणाभ्याम् (ṛṇābhyām) ऋणाभिः (ṛṇābhiḥ)
    Dative ऋणायै (ṛṇāyai) ऋणाभ्याम् (ṛṇābhyām) ऋणाभ्यः (ṛṇābhyaḥ)
    Ablative ऋणायाः (ṛṇāyāḥ) ऋणाभ्याम् (ṛṇābhyām) ऋणाभ्यः (ṛṇābhyaḥ)
    Genitive ऋणायाः (ṛṇāyāḥ) ऋणयोः (ṛṇayoḥ) ऋणानाम् (ṛṇānām)
    Locative ऋणायाम् (ṛṇāyām) ऋणयोः (ṛṇayoḥ) ऋणासु (ṛṇāsu)
    Neuter a-stem declension of ऋण
    Nom. sg. ऋणम् (ṛṇam)
    Gen. sg. ऋणस्य (ṛṇasya)
    Singular Dual Plural
    Nominative ऋणम् (ṛṇam) ऋणे (ṛṇe) ऋणानि (ṛṇāni)
    Vocative ऋण (ṛṇa) ऋणे (ṛṇe) ऋणानि (ṛṇāni)
    Accusative ऋणम् (ṛṇam) ऋणे (ṛṇe) ऋणानि (ṛṇāni)
    Instrumental ऋणेन (ṛṇena) ऋणाभ्याम् (ṛṇābhyām) ऋणैः (ṛṇaiḥ)
    Dative ऋणाय (ṛṇāya) ऋणाभ्याम् (ṛṇābhyām) ऋणेभ्यः (ṛṇebhyaḥ)
    Ablative ऋणात् (ṛṇāt) ऋणाभ्याम् (ṛṇābhyām) ऋणेभ्यः (ṛṇebhyaḥ)
    Genitive ऋणस्य (ṛṇasya) ऋणयोः (ṛṇayoḥ) ऋणानाम् (ṛṇānām)
    Locative ऋणे (ṛṇe) ऋणयोः (ṛṇayoḥ) ऋणेषु (ṛṇeṣu)

    References[edit]

    1. ^ Lubotsky, Alexander (2011) The Indo-Aryan Inherited Lexicon (in progress) (Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Project)‎[1], Leiden University