ऋण

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Hindi[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Sanskrit ऋण (ṛṇá).

Noun[edit]

ऋण (ŕṇm

  1. (finance) debt, loss

Sanskrit[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Indo-Iranian *Hr̥nás, *Harnás (debt, guilt). Compare Avestan 𐬀𐬭𐬆𐬥𐬀𐬝𐬹𐬗𐬀𐬉𐬱𐬀 (arənat̰ caēša, punishing guilt), Khotanese ārra (fault).

Pronunciation[edit]


Adjective[edit]

ऋण (ṛṇá)

  1. going, flying, fugitive
  2. guilty, having gone against or transgressed

Declension[edit]

Masculine a-stem declension of ऋण
Nom. sg. ऋणः (ṛṇaḥ)
Gen. sg. ऋणस्य (ṛṇasya)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative ऋणः (ṛṇaḥ) ऋणौ (ṛṇau) ऋणाः (ṛṇāḥ)
Vocative ऋण (ṛṇa) ऋणौ (ṛṇau) ऋणाः (ṛṇāḥ)
Accusative ऋणम् (ṛṇam) ऋणौ (ṛṇau) ऋणान् (ṛṇān)
Instrumental ऋणेन (ṛṇena) ऋणाभ्याम् (ṛṇābhyām) ऋणैः (ṛṇaiḥ)
Dative ऋणाय (ṛṇāya) ऋणाभ्याम् (ṛṇābhyām) ऋणेभ्यः (ṛṇebhyaḥ)
Ablative ऋणात् (ṛṇāt) ऋणाभ्याम् (ṛṇābhyām) ऋणेभ्यः (ṛṇebhyaḥ)
Genitive ऋणस्य (ṛṇasya) ऋणयोः (ṛṇayoḥ) ऋणानाम् (ṛṇānām)
Locative ऋणे (ṛṇe) ऋणयोः (ṛṇayoḥ) ऋणेषु (ṛṇeṣu)
Feminine ā-stem declension of ऋण
Nom. sg. ऋणा (ṛṇā)
Gen. sg. ऋणायाः (ṛṇāyāḥ)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative ऋणा (ṛṇā) ऋणे (ṛṇe) ऋणाः (ṛṇāḥ)
Vocative ऋणे (ṛṇe) ऋणे (ṛṇe) ऋणाः (ṛṇāḥ)
Accusative ऋणाम् (ṛṇām) ऋणे (ṛṇe) ऋणाः (ṛṇāḥ)
Instrumental ऋणया (ṛṇayā) ऋणाभ्याम् (ṛṇābhyām) ऋणाभिः (ṛṇābhiḥ)
Dative ऋणायै (ṛṇāyai) ऋणाभ्याम् (ṛṇābhyām) ऋणाभ्यः (ṛṇābhyaḥ)
Ablative ऋणायाः (ṛṇāyāḥ) ऋणाभ्याम् (ṛṇābhyām) ऋणाभ्यः (ṛṇābhyaḥ)
Genitive ऋणायाः (ṛṇāyāḥ) ऋणयोः (ṛṇayoḥ) ऋणानाम् (ṛṇānām)
Locative ऋणायाम् (ṛṇāyām) ऋणयोः (ṛṇayoḥ) ऋणासु (ṛṇāsu)
Neuter a-stem declension of ऋण
Nom. sg. ऋणम् (ṛṇam)
Gen. sg. ऋणस्य (ṛṇasya)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative ऋणम् (ṛṇam) ऋणे (ṛṇe) ऋणानि (ṛṇāni)
Vocative ऋण (ṛṇa) ऋणे (ṛṇe) ऋणानि (ṛṇāni)
Accusative ऋणम् (ṛṇam) ऋणे (ṛṇe) ऋणानि (ṛṇāni)
Instrumental ऋणेन (ṛṇena) ऋणाभ्याम् (ṛṇābhyām) ऋणैः (ṛṇaiḥ)
Dative ऋणा (ṛṇā) ऋणाभ्याम् (ṛṇābhyām) ऋणेभ्यः (ṛṇebhyaḥ)
Ablative ऋणात् (ṛṇāt) ऋणाभ्याम् (ṛṇābhyām) ऋणेभ्यः (ṛṇebhyaḥ)
Genitive ऋणस्य (ṛṇasya) ऋणयोः (ṛṇayoḥ) ऋणानाम् (ṛṇānām)
Locative ऋणे (ṛṇe) ऋणयोः (ṛṇayoḥ) ऋणेषु (ṛṇeṣu)

Noun[edit]

ऋण (ṛṇán

  1. anything wanted or missed
  2. anything due, obligation, duty, debt
  3. the obligations of a Brahman
  4. a debt of money, money owed
    • c. 1700 BCE – 1200 BCE, Ṛgveda 9.47.2
      कृतानीदस्य कर्त्वा चेतन्ते दस्युतर्हणा ।
      ऋणा च धृष्णुश्चयते ॥
      kṛtānīdasya kartvā cetante dasyutarhaṇā .
      ṛṇā ca dhṛṣṇuścayate .
      His task is done: his crushings of the Dasyus are made manifest:
      He sternly reckoneth their debts.
    • c. 200 BCE – 200 CE, Manusmṛti
  5. guilt
  6. (mathematics) a negative quality, minus
  7. water
  8. fort, stronghold

Declension[edit]

Neuter a-stem declension of ऋण
Nom. sg. ऋणम् (ṛṇam)
Gen. sg. ऋणस्य (ṛṇasya)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative ऋणम् (ṛṇam) ऋणे (ṛṇe) ऋणानि (ṛṇāni)
Vocative ऋण (ṛṇa) ऋणे (ṛṇe) ऋणानि (ṛṇāni)
Accusative ऋणम् (ṛṇam) ऋणे (ṛṇe) ऋणानि (ṛṇāni)
Instrumental ऋणेन (ṛṇena) ऋणाभ्याम् (ṛṇābhyām) ऋणैः (ṛṇaiḥ)
Dative ऋणा (ṛṇā) ऋणाभ्याम् (ṛṇābhyām) ऋणेभ्यः (ṛṇebhyaḥ)
Ablative ऋणात् (ṛṇāt) ऋणाभ्याम् (ṛṇābhyām) ऋणेभ्यः (ṛṇebhyaḥ)
Genitive ऋणस्य (ṛṇasya) ऋणयोः (ṛṇayoḥ) ऋणानाम् (ṛṇānām)
Locative ऋणे (ṛṇe) ऋणयोः (ṛṇayoḥ) ऋणेषु (ṛṇeṣu)

References[edit]

  • Alexander Lubotsky (2011) The Indo-Aryan Inherited Lexicon (in progress) (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series)[1]