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From Proto-Indo-European *wōkʷs ‎(speech, voice). Cognates include Latin vōx, Ancient Greek ὄψ ‎(óps) and Persian آواز ‎(âvâz).


वच् ‎(√vac). Class 2 root. Lemma: वक्ति ‎(vacti)

  1. cl.2 P. (Dhātup. xxiv, 55) वक्ति (occurs only in sg. वच्मि, वक्षि, वक्ति, and Impv. वक्तु ; Ved. also cl.3 P. विवक्ति ; pf. उवाच, ऊज् RV. etc. ; उवक्थ AV. ; ववाच, ववक्षे RV. ; aor. अवोचत्, °चत RV. etc. ; in वेद also Subj. वोचति, °ते, वेचाति ; Pot. वोचेत्, °चेत ; Impv. वोचतु ; Prec. उच्यासम् Br. ; fut. वक्ता ib. etc. ; वक्ष्यति RV. etc. ; °ते MBh. ; Cond. अवक्ष्यत् Br. Up. ; inf. वाक्तुम् Br. etc. ; °तवे RV. ; °तोस् Br. ; ind.p. उक्त्वा Br. etc. ; -उच्य ib.), to speak, say, tell, utter, announce, declare, mention, proclaim, recite, describe (with acc. with or without प्रति dat. or gen. of pers., and acc. of thing ; often with double acc. e.g. तम् इदं वाक्यम् उवाच, ‘he spoke this speech to him’ ; with double acc. also ‘to name, call’ Ā. with nom ; ‘one's self’ ; with पुनर्, ‘to speak again, repeat’ ; or ‘to answer, reply’) RV. etc.
  2. to reproach, revile (acc.) Hariv. R. : Pass. उच्यते (aor. अवाचि, or in later language अवोचि), to be spoken or said or told or uttered etc. RV. etc. ( यद् उच्यते, ‘what the saying is’)
  3. to resound.
  4. to be called or accounted, be regarded as, pass for (nom. L. also loc.) Mn. MBh. etc.: Caus. वाचयति, °ते (Pot. वाचयीत ĀṡvGṛ. ; aor. अवीवचत् ; Pass. वाच्यते), to cause to say or speak or recite or pronounce (with, double acc. ; often the object is to be supplied) Br. GṛS. MBh. etc.
  5. to cause anything written or printed to be spoken i.e. to read out loud Hariv. Kāv. Kathās. etc.
  6. (Dhātup. xxxiv, 35) to say, tell, declare.
  7. to promise MBh. : Desid. विवक्षति, °ते (Pass. विवक्ष्यते), to desire to say or speak or recite or proclaim or declare.
  8. (Pass.) to be meant Ṡaṃk. Sarvad. : Intens. (only अवावचीत्) to call or cry aloudRV. x, 102, 6. [compare Gk. ἐπ for ϝεπ in ἔπος, ὄψ, ὄσσα etc. ; Lat. vocare, vox ;Germ. gi-waht, gi-wahinnen, er-wähnen.]

Derived terms[edit]


  • Monier William's Sanskrit-English Dictionary, 2nd Ed. 1899.