Appendix:Glossary of parts of speech

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Not all the parts of speech found below can be found in English.


An adposition is an "element that combines syntactically with a phrase and indicates how that phrase should be interpreted in the surrounding context". The ones listed below all have the same function, but differ only in where they are placed relative to their object.

These are usually all called "prepositions" because they are not functionally different from each other.

Part of speech Definition Example
preposition Adposition that comes before its object before, with, to, for
postposition Adposition that comes after its object Dutch achterna, naartoe
circumposition Pair of adpositions that go around their object
ambiposition Can be either a preposition or postposition notwithstanding, aside


An adjective modifies or describes a noun or pronoun.

Part of speech Definition Example
adjective modifies a noun or pronoun funny, interesting, so-called
determiner an adjective that indicates which one or how many that, the, ten, few
article the determiners the, a, or equivalent the, a, an
numeral or number Indicates quantity (cardinal number/numeral) or rank in numbers (ordinal number/numeral) five, fifth, first, zero

Some things that adjectives can be are:


Part of speech Definition Example
adverb modifies a verb, adjective, or other adverb interestingly, mostly, a little


To be completed


To be completed


To be completed


To be completed


Part of speech Definition Example
interjection or exclamation A word that usually expresses emotion that can stand on its own thank you, holy shit, oh
particle A word that does not fit into any other class O, to