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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.




  1. to protect
  2. to shepherd

Usage notes[edit]

Semantic shift from "protector" towards "shepherd, herder" can be seen in many branches, signifying the importance of herding. Unusual is the o-grade root in Greek ποιμήν ‎(poimḗn, shepherd, herdsman), where the abstract nomina agentis suffix *-mn̥ usually binds e-grade, but that hardly seems sufficient to reconstruct *h₃ in the root and to separate it from *peh₂-.

Derived terms[edit]

  • *péh₂-ti ~ *ph₂-énti ‎(athematic root present)
  • *péh₂-s-ti ~ *ph₂-s-énti ‎(s-present)
    • Anatolian:
      • Hittite: 𒉺𒀪𒊭 ‎(pa-aḫ-sa, to protect, guard)
    • Balto-Slavic:
    • Italic: *pāskō (possibly; enlarged into a sḱe-present)
      • Latin: pāscō ‎(put to graze)
    • Tocharian:
      • Tocharian A: pās- ("to look after, guard")
  • *peh₂-s-éh₁ye-ti ‎(eh₁-stative over s-present)[1]
  • *poh₂-t-éye- or *ph₂-t-éye- ‎(enlarged causative)
  • *ph₂-t-éh₂-(ye)-
    • Germanic: *fadōną ‎(to graze, feed oneself)
  • *poh₂-mn̥
    • Hellenic:
      • Ancient Greek: πῶμα ‎(pôma, lid, cover)
  • *poh₂-i-mn̥
    • Balto-Slavic:
      • Lithuanian: piemuõ ‎(shepherd)
      • → Finnish: paimen ‎(shepherd))
    • Hellenic:
      • Mycenaean Greek: 𐀡𐀕 ‎(po-me, shepherd)
      • Ancient Greek: ποιμήν ‎(poimḗn, shepherd, herdsman)
  • *poh₂-yus
  • *peh₂-tro- ‎(guarder, protector, keeper)
    • Armenian:
    • Indo-Iranian:
      • Iranian: *pāθra-
        • Avestan: [script needed] ‎(pāθra)
        • Manichaean Middle Persian: pʾhr ‎(pāhr, watch-post)
        • Middle Persian: pʾs ‎(pās, guard, watch)
        • → Old Armenian: պարհ- ‎(parh-), պահ ‎(pah)
        • → Middle Armenian: պահրան ‎(pahran)
  • *peh₂-dʰlom
  • *peh₂-dʰrom
    • Germanic: *fōdrą ‎(fodder, sheath)
  • Unsorted formations:
    • Albanian: pashë (aoristic of shikojë ‎(to see, to look at))
    • Armenian:
      • Old Armenian: հովիւ ‎(hoviw, shepherd) < *h₃éwi-peh₂-
      • (?) Old Armenian: հայիմ ‎(hayim, to watch)
      • (?) Old Armenian: հաւտ ‎(hawt, flock)
      • (?) Old Armenian: *հաւտաղ ‎(*hawtał) < *peh₂-lo-
        • Armenian: հոտաղ ‎(hotał, shepherd)
    • Germanic: *fōdô ‎(food)
    • Hellenic:
      • Ancient Greek: Πάν ‎(Pán)
      • Ancient Greek: πῶυ ‎(pôu, flock of sheep)
      • Indo-Aryan:
        • Sanskrit: पूषन ‎(Pūṣan, Vedic god of meeting, marriages, journeys, roads, and the feeding of cattle)
    • Indo-Iranian: *paH-
      • Iranian:
        • Bactrian: αβαδο ‎(abado, cultivated)
        • Kurdish:
          • Kurmanji: payîn ‎(to wait, to anticipate)
          • Zazaki: pawetene ‎(to protect)
        • Old Persian: 𐎱𐎠 ‎(pā-)
      • Persian: آباد ‎(ābād, inhabited, cultivated; city, habitation) < Iranian *āpāta-
      • Kurdish:
        • Kurmanji: ava ‎(built; inhabited; florishing) < Iranian *āpāta-
        • Sorani: awedan ‎(built; inhabited; florishing) < Iranian *āpāta-
    • Italic:


  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “pāreō, -ere”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 445