Appendix:Proto-Indo-European/peh₂-

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*peh₂- and an original variant with long diphthong *pōy- ~ *pī- (< *pih₂)

  1. to protect

Comment[edit]

Semantic shift from "protector" towards "shepherd, herder" can be seen in many branches, signifying the importance of herding. Unusual is the o-grade root in Greek ποιμήν ‎(poimḗn, shepherd, herdsman), where the abstract nomina agentis suffix *-mn̥ usually binds e-grade, but that hardly seems sufficient to reconstruct *h₃ in the root and to separate it from *peh₂-.

Derived terms[edit]


  • *peh₂- ‎(root present)
    • Indo-Iranian:
  • *peh₂-d(ʰ)- ‎(enlarged root present)
  • *ph₂-sḱé- ‎(sḱe-present)
    • Italic:
      • Latin: pāscō ‎(put to graze)
  • *poh₂-t-éye- or *ph₂-t-éye- ‎(enlarged causative)
  • *ph₂-t-éh₂-(ye)-
    • Germanic: *fadōną ‎(to graze, feed oneself)
  • *poh₂-mn̥
    • Hellenic:
      • Ancient Greek: πῶμα ‎(pôma, lid, cover)
  • *poh₂-i-mn̥
    • Balto-Slavic:
      • Lithuanian: piemuõ ‎(shepherd)
      • → Finnish: paimen ‎(shepherd))
    • Hellenic:
      • Mycenaean Greek: 𐀡𐀕 ‎(po-me, shepherd)
      • Ancient Greek: ποιμήν ‎(poimḗn, shepherd, herdsman)
  • *poh₂-yus
  • *peh₂-tro- ‎(guarder, protector, keeper)
    • Armenian:
    • Indo-Iranian:
      • Iranian: *pāθra-
        • Avestan: [script needed] ‎(pāθra)
        • Manichaean Middle Persian: pʾhr ‎(pāhr, watch-post)
        • Middle Persian: pʾs ‎(pās, guard, watch)
        • → Old Armenian: պարհ- ‎(parh-), պահ ‎(pah)
        • → Middle Armenian: պահրան ‎(pahran)
  • *peh₂-dʰlom
  • *peh₂-dʰrom
    • Germanic: *fōdrą ‎(fodder, sheath)
  • Unsorted formations:
    • Albanian: pashë (aoristic of shikojë ‎(to see, to look at))
    • Anatolian:
      • Hittite: 𒉺𒀪𒊭 ‎(pa-aḫ-sa, to protect, guard)
    • Armenian:
      • Old Armenian: հովիւ ‎(hoviw, shepherd) < *h₃éwi-peh₂-
      • (?) Old Armenian: հայիմ ‎(hayim, to watch)
      • (?) Old Armenian: հաւտ ‎(hawt, flock)
      • (?) Old Armenian: *հաւտաղ ‎(*hawtał) < *peh₂-lo-
        • Armenian: հոտաղ ‎(hotał, shepherd)
    • Germanic: *fōdô ‎(food)
    • Hellenic:
      • Ancient Greek: Πάν ‎(Pán)
      • Ancient Greek: πῶυ ‎(pôu, flock of sheep)
      • Indo-Aryan:
        • Sanskrit: पूषन ‎(Pūṣan, Vedic god of meeting, marriages, journeys, roads, and the feeding of cattle)
    • Indo-Iranian: *paH-
      • Iranian:
        • Bactrian: αβαδο ‎(abado, cultivated)
        • Kurdish:
          • Kurmanji: payîn ‎(to wait, to anticipate)
          • Zazaki: pawetene ‎(to protect)
        • Old Persian: 𐎱𐎠 ‎(pā-)
      • Persian: آباد ‎(ābād, inhabited, cultivated; city, habitation) < Iranian *āpāta-
      • Kurdish:
        • Kurmanji: ava ‎(built; inhabited; florishing) < Iranian *āpāta-
        • Sorani: awedan ‎(built; inhabited; florishing) < Iranian *āpāta-
    • Italic:
    • Tocharian:
      • Tocharian A: pās- ("to look after, guard")