Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/peh₂-

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*peh₂-[1][2][3]

  1. to protect
  2. to shepherd

Usage notes[edit]

Semantic shift from "protector" towards "shepherd, herder" can be seen in many branches, signifying the importance of herding. Unusual is the o-grade root in Greek ποιμήν (poimḗn, shepherd, herdsman), where the abstract nomina agentis suffix *-mn̥ usually binds e-grade, but that hardly seems sufficient to reconstruct *h₃ in the root and to separate it from *peh₂-.

Derived terms[edit]


  • *péh₂-ti ~ *ph₂-énti (athematic root present)
  • *péh₂-s-ti ~ *ph₂-s-énti (s-present)[4][5]
    • Anatolian:
      • Hittite: 𒉺𒀪𒊭 (pa-aḫ-ša, /paḫša/, to protect, guard, 3sg.pres.mid.)
    • Balto-Slavic:
      • Slavic: *pastì (pasture, herd, feed)
  • *ph₂-sḱé-ti (*sḱé-present)
    • Italic: *pāskō (possibly; enlarged into a sḱe-present)
      • Latin: pāscō (put to graze)
    • Tocharian: *pāsk-
      • Tocharian A: pās- ("to look after, guard")
      • Tocharian: paskenträ
  • *peh₂-s-éh₁ye-ti (eh₁-stative over s-present)[6]
  • *poh₂-t-éye- or *ph₂-t-éye- (enlarged causative)
  • *ph₂-t-éh₂-(ye)-
    • Germanic: *fadōną (to graze, feed oneself)
  • *poh₂-mn̥
    • Hellenic:
      • Ancient Greek: πῶμα (pôma, lid, cover)
  • *poh₂-i-mn̥
    • Balto-Slavic:
      • Lithuanian: piemuõ (shepherd)
      • → Finnish: paimen (shepherd))
    • Hellenic:
      • Mycenaean Greek: 𐀡𐀕 (po-me, shepherd)
      • Ancient Greek: ποιμήν (poimḗn, shepherd, herdsman)
  • *poh₂-yus
  • *peh₂-tro- (guarder, protector, keeper)
  • *peh₂-dʰlom
  • *peh₂-dʰrom
    • Germanic: *fōdrą (fodder, sheath)
  • Unsorted formations:
    • Albanian: pashë (aoristic of shikojë (to see, to look at))
    • Armenian:
      • Old Armenian: հովիւ (hoviw, shepherd) < *h₃éwi-peh₂-
      • (?) Old Armenian: հայիմ (hayim, to watch)
      • (?) Old Armenian: հաւտ (hawt, flock)
      • (?) Old Armenian: *հաւտաղ (*hawtał) < *peh₂-lo-
    • Germanic: *fōdô (food)
    • Hellenic:
      • Ancient Greek: Πάν (Pán)
      • Ancient Greek: πῶυ (pôu, flock of sheep)
      • Indo-Aryan:
        • Sanskrit: पूषन (Pūṣan, Vedic god of meeting, marriages, journeys, roads, and the feeding of cattle)
    • Indo-Iranian: *paH-
      • Iranian:
      • Persian: آباد (ābād, inhabited, cultivated; city, habitation) < Iranian *āpāta-
      • Kurdish:
        • Kurmanji: ava (built; inhabited; florishing) < Iranian *āpāta-
        • Sorani: awedan (built; inhabited; florishing) < Iranian *āpāta-
    • Italic:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959), “pā-: pə-”, in Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume III, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 787
  2. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959), “pō(i)-: (pəi- ?:) pī-”, in Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume III, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 839
  3. ^ Rix, Helmut, editor (2001), “*peh₂(i̯)-”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, ISBN 3-89500-219-4, page 460
  4. ^ Kloekhorst, Alwin (2008), “paḫš-a(ri), paḫš-i”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 5), Leiden, Boston: Brill, ISBN 978-90-04-16092-7, pages 707-709
  5. ^ Derksen, Rick (2008), “*pasti I”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, ISBN 978 90 04 15504 6, page 392
  6. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “pāreō”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 445