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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



This root could presumably have an *a, but the short vowel of Proto-Indo-Iranian *bʰaga- can easily be explained by Lubotsky's Law, from the loss of the laryngeal in front of a voiced stop plus another consonant; this condition would have existed, for instance, in athematic verb forms, such as *bʰegs-.[1][2]

Alternative reconstructions[edit]



  1. to divide, distribute, allot

Derived terms[edit]

  • *bʰeh₂g-t (zero-grade athematic root aorist)[3]
    • Hellenic:
      • Ancient Greek: ἔφαγον (éphagon, I ate, devoured ← *I received a share)
  • *bʰeh₂g-s-(éye-)ti (zero-grade sigmatic aorist/desiderative)[3]
  • *bʰéh₂g-e-ti (e-grade thematic root present)[1]
  • *bʰoh₂g-éye-ti (o-grade with causative suffix -éye)[1]
  • *bʰeh₂g-(e)h₂ (feminine or collective)[6]
    • Armenian:
      • Old Armenian: բակ (bak, courtyard; sheep pen; sun or moon halo ← *landed allotment, encircled estate) (alternatively, a borrowing from the Indo-Iranian cognate *bʰāgás)
  • *bʰoh₂g-ó-s m (portion, share)[6][3]
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *bʰāgás (see there for further descendants)
  • *bʰeh₂g-ó-s
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *bʰagás (see there for further descendants)
  • *bʰéh₂g-ti-s ~ *bʰh₂g-téy-s
  • *bʰeh₂g-tó-s
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *bʰaktás (see there for further descendants)
  • *bʰóh₂g-s ~ *bʰéh₂g-s (allotment, athematic noun)
    • (possibly) Proto-Germanic: *bōks (book < *letter, writing < *identifying marks) (see there for further descendants)
  • Unsorted formations:
    • Proto-Tocharian: *pāke (part, portion, share, piece)[7] (or borrowed from the Iranian cognate)
    • Proto-Slavic: *bogъ


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Rix, Helmut, editor (2001) Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs]‎[1] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, →ISBN, page 65
  2. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2011) Comparative Indo-European Linguistics: An Introduction, revised and corrected by Michiel de Vaan, 2nd edition, Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “φαγεῖν”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume II, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 1543
  4. ^ Cheung, Johnny (2007) Etymological Dictionary of the Iranian Verb (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 2)‎[2], Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 1–2
  5. ^ Rastorgujeva, V. S.; Edelʹman, D. I. (2003) Etimologičeskij slovarʹ iranskix jazykov [Etymological Dictionary of Iranian Languages] (in Russian), volume II, Moscow: Vostochnaya Literatura, page 55
  6. 6.0 6.1 Martirosyan, Hrach (2013), “The place of Armenian in the Indo-European language family: the relationship with Greek and Indo-Iranian”, in Journal of Language Relationship[3], issue 10, page 99
  7. ^ Adams, Douglas Q. (2013) A Dictionary of Tocharian B: Revised and Greatly Enlarged (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 10), Amsterdam, New York: Rodopi, →ISBN, pages 388—389