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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Apparently from the adjective *gʷih₃wós (alive, living), ultimately from the root *gʷeyh₃- (to live).

However, Gąsiorowski (2006)[1] takes this verb (and thus the root) to be an irregular dissimilation of *gʷígʷwe-, an isolated reduplicating thematic present from a lost *gʷew- (move) (?) with an o-grade root noun in *gʷṓws.


*gʷíh₃weti (imperfective)[2]

  1. to live, to be alive


Imperfective, thematic, active only
3rd singular *gʷíh₃weti
3rd plural *gʷíh₃wonti
Active voice Present indicative Past indicative Imperative Subjunctive Optative
1st singular *gʷíh₃woh₂ *gʷíh₃wom *gʷíh₃wōh₂ *gʷíh₃woyh₁m̥
2nd singular *gʷíh₃wesi *gʷíh₃wes *gʷíh₃we *gʷíh₃wēsi *gʷíh₃woys
3rd singular *gʷíh₃weti *gʷíh₃wet *gʷíh₃wetu *gʷíh₃wēti *gʷíh₃woyt
1st dual *gʷíh₃wowos *gʷíh₃wowe *gʷíh₃wōwos *gʷíh₃woywe
2nd dual *gʷíh₃wetes *gʷíh₃wetom *gʷíh₃wetom *gʷíh₃wētes *gʷíh₃woytom
3rd dual *gʷíh₃wetes *gʷíh₃wetām *gʷíh₃wetām *gʷíh₃wētes *gʷíh₃woytām
1st plural *gʷíh₃womos *gʷíh₃wome *gʷíh₃wōmos *gʷíh₃woyme
2nd plural *gʷíh₃wete *gʷíh₃wete *gʷíh₃wete *gʷíh₃wēte *gʷíh₃woyte
3rd plural *gʷíh₃wonti *gʷíh₃wont *gʷíh₃wontu *gʷíh₃wōnti *gʷíh₃woyh₁n̥t
Participle *gʷíh₃wonts


  • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *gīˀwetei
  • Celtic:
  • Proto-Hellenic: *ďṓwō (< *gʷyṓw-ō < *gʷyéh₃w-oh₂)
  • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *ǰíHwati (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Italic: *gʷīwō
    • Latin: vīvō (see there for further descendants)
  • Tocharian: (from *gwíh₃-ō)


  1. ^
  2. ^ Ringe, Donald (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English; 1)‎[1], Oxford: Oxford University Press, →ISBN