dzīt

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Latvian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

The present stem dzen- comes from Proto-Baltic *gen-, from Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰen- (to hit, to strike), whereas the infinitive stem dzī- comes from Proto-Baltic *gin-, from *gʷʰn̥-, the zero grade of *gʷʰen-.

The original sense was “to hit,” still visible in dzīt naglu “to drive a nail (into wood).” It later evolved into “to force,” “to drive” (somewhere). Cognates include Lithuanian giñti (present tense genù), gìnti (to defend; to prohibit) (present tense ginù), Old Prussian guntwei, gunnimai (apparently first-person plural form), Proto-Slavic *gъnati, present tense *žěno (Russian гнать (gnatʹ), Belarusian гнаць (hnacʹ), Ukrainian гнати (hnaty), Bulgarian гоня (gónja), Czech hnáti, Polish gnać), Old High German gund- (fight), Old Norse gunnr (war, battle), Norwegian dialectal gana (to cut tree branches), Hittite 𒆪𒂗𒍣 (kuenzi, he kills), Sanskrit हन्ति (hanti, he hits, kills), Avestan 𐬘𐬀𐬌𐬥𐬙𐬌 (jainti, to hit, to wound, to kill), Ancient Greek φόνος (phónos, mortal blow, murder) (< *gʷʰon-), θείνω (theínō, to hit) (< *gʷʰen-yoh₂), Latin dēfendō (to defend) (< *dē-gʷʰen-).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Verb[edit]

dzīt tr., 1st conj., pres. dzenu, dzen, dzen, past dzinu

  1. to lead, to drive (to make (animals, people, etc.) go faster, or in a certain direction)
    dzīt zirgus ātrākto make the horses go faster
    dzīt zirgus aplokāto drive, to lead the horses into the paddock
    dzīt ganosto take (the animals) to pasture (to graze)
    dzīt govis ārā no labībasto drive the cows away from the grains
    bet lopi gan jādzen no kūts ārābut we have to drive, move the animals out of the barn
    pa ceļu divas sievietes dzina sarkanu govitwo women were leading the red cow along the road
    daži jātnieki aizaulekšoja dzīt kopā ciemniekussome riders galloped to drive the villagers together (= to make them gather together)
  2. (of objects) to push, to pull, so as to make (something) move in a certain direction
    dzīt ratiņus pa ceļuto push, to pull a cart on the road
    nosēdies airos, Pičs ar vienmērīgiem un spēcīgiem vēzieniem dzina laivu uz priekšusitting at the oars, Pičs with steady and strong strokes drove, moved the boat forward
    daudzi šīs brigādes vīri dzen tīklus Daugavā jau garu garos gadu desmitusmany of the men in this team drove (= threw, cast) nets in the Daugava (= fished in the Daugava) for already a good ten years
  3. (of inanimate beings) to move, to drive, to propel (to make a vehicle move)
    motors ar lielu prieku dzen laivu ar zvejniekiem pertī jaunam lomamthe motor with great joy moved, propelled the boat with the firshermen to(ward) a new catch
    rudens vējš dzen lapu virpuļusthe autumn wind moved, drove the leaf in a whirl
    nelaba jausma dzina Osi tālāka bad premonition, apprehension drove Osis further
  4. (usually together with prom, projām, ārā) to send (something) away; to make (something) disappear
    dzīt laukā no mājāmto send away from the house
    dzīt prom no galdato push away from the table
    ienaidnieks uz mūžu projām dzītsthe enemy for life (has been) driven away
    nekas, nekas, tas dzen reimatismu ārāno, not at all, this drives the rheumatism away
  5. to make (someone) do something; to make someone do something (e.g., work) at full capacity
    dzīt pie darbato make (someone) go to work
    dzīt zirgus auļosto drive the horses into a gallop
    vagars dzen zemniekus, muižkungs vagaru un lielskungs viņus abusthe overseer drives the peasants (= makes them work), the estate manager (drives) the overseer, and the landlord both of them
    tas bija steidzīgs pasūtījums; meistars dzina strādniekus un mudinājathis was an urgent order; the master drove the workers (= made them work), urging them
  6. (colloquial, of vehicles) to drive them at full speed
    dzīt mašīnu, velosipēduto drive a car, a bicycle (as fast as it will go)
  7. to chase (to run after, e.g., an animal, during a hunt, so as to make sure it goes in a certain direction)
    tagad sāk dzīt zaķi pa upes krastiemnow they began to chase a hare along the river banks
    puisim ar suņiem jāiet apkārt uz viņu pusi un jāsāk dzītthe young man with the dogs has to go around to his side and begin to chase (the game)
  8. to chase (to follow, to try to find, especially in a hunt)
    dzīt pēdasto follow (lit. chase) a trail
    jau vairākus mēnešus drošības dienests dzina pēdas nelegālai organizācijaialready for many months the security service has been following (lit. chasing) the trail to the illegal organization
  9. to drive (to force something into something else, usually with physical strength)
    dzīt naglu sienāto drive a nail into the wall
    dzīt mietu zemēto drive, to stick a pole into the ground
    pirksti steigšus dzen patronu stobrā(his) fingers hastily drove, stuck the cartridge into the barrel
  10. to drive, to clear (to make (a path, a furrow) in a certain direction, usually via hard work)
    Albīns dzina pēdējo stigu gar meža maluAlbīns cleared (lit. drove) the last firebreak along the edge of the forest
    izaugs dēls; un jaunas vagas dzīsthe son will grow up, and he will drive (= clear, open) new furrows
  11. to drive (to cause, to be the cause of something unpleasant happening to someone)
    dzīt postā, izmisumāto drive (someone) to misery, to despair
    dzīt nāvēto send, drive (someone) to death
    bet šis uzņēmums bija tas, kas Nagainim sagādāja daudz raižu un dzina aizvien dziļāk parādosbut it was this company that caused great trouble to Nagainis, and drove (him) deeper and deeper into debt
  12. (usually 3rd person, of plants) to grow new growth, shoots, sprouts (to produce as part of their bodies)
    dzīt asnus, atvasesto grow sprouts, shoots
    līdzko augsne atkususi, sparģeļi dzen asnusas soon as the soil thaws, the asparagus grows sprouts
    pēc noziedēšanas un augļu nogatavošanās agave iet bojā, bet saknenis dzen jaunas lapu rozetesafter flowering and bearing fruit, the agave dies, but its rootstock grows new leaf rosettes
  13. (colloquial) to gather, to put together (by pushing, carrying, etc.)
    dzīt malku mājāsto gather firewood at home
    dzīt mantu, nauduto gather riches, money
    saimnieks dzina iepriekšējās dienas pļāvumu vālosthe farmer drove (= gathered) the result of the previous' days mowing into piles
Conjugation[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
prefixed verbs:
other derived terms:

Etymology 2[edit]

From Etymology 1, a calque of Livonian ajjõ (chase away). Endzelīns has been critical of many suggested Livonian calques in Latvian, however, the semantic split of the verb dzīt "to chase away" doubling to mean "to shave" is convincing according to him. Compare Livonian abbiņi ajjõ (to shave beard), Estonian habet ajama.[2]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Verb[edit]

dzīt tr., 1st conj., pres. dzenu, dzen, dzen, past dzinu

  1. to shave
    dzīt bārdu, matusto shave (one's) beard, hair
Usage notes[edit]

Dzīt is the preferred term in the sense of "shaving with some electrical appliance", while "shaving with a razor" is usually expressed as skūt.

Conjugation[edit]
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Proto-Baltic *gī-, from Proto-Indo-European *gʷi-, *gʷey- (< *gʷeyh₃- “to live”). The original meaning was thus “to live,” from which “to become healthy.” At first there was an opposition between dzīt “to heal, become healthy” (present tense dzīstu) and dzīt “to live” (present tense dzīvu), but the latter form was later replaced by dzīvot, possibly originally its iterative form. Cognates include Lithuanian gýti (to heal, to become healthy, (archaic) to live), Proto-Slavic *žiti (to live) (Russian жить (žit’), Belarusian жыць (žyc’), Ukrainian жити (žýty), живити (žyvýty, to revive, to reanimate), Upper Sorbian žić, Avestan 𐬘𐬌𐬙𐬌 (jiti, life), Ancient Greek βίος (bíos, life; food) (< *gʷi-).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Verb[edit]

dzīt intr., 1st conj., only 3rd personpres. dzīst, past dzija

  1. (of wounds, scars) to heal (to become whole, to disappear with the formation of new tissue)
    vātis dzīstthe wounds are healing
    ievainojums dzija lēnithe injury healed slowly
    visas brūces reiz dzīstall wounds heal once (= at some point)
  2. (of body parts, organs) to heal (to become healthy again)
    Ošu Andram apdauzītais pirksts gan lāgā negribēja dzīt, bet akmeņu laušana tomēr veicās labiOšu Andrs' injured finger would not heal properly, nevertheless the stone breaking was going well
Conjugation[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
prefixed verbs:

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “dzīt”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7
  2. ^ Marta Rudzīte, Latviešu un lībiešu valodas savstarpējā ietekme in Kersti Boiko's Lībieši – rakstu krājums, page 294