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Sarri.greektalk referencequestionsmodulesaudionounsverbslemmataαβγόαἴρω & αἱρῶGreekΤ' αστέρι του βοριά (song)
LABtest1commands samplerfontsthoughtswordsverbstArT1 · aT2· a· bT3, T4, ... — menuhelp@el.wikt

REFERENCE 2017.10.31. - 2018.11.22.


  • templates for sources
Category:Ancient Greek reference templates (gre.anc @en.wiktionary)
Category:Greek reference templates (gre.mod. @en.wiktionary)
Category:English reference templates (eng @en.wiktionary)
el:Κατηγορία:Πρότυπα βιβλιογραφίας (bibliography Templates @el.wiktionary)
el:Κατηγορία:Πρότυπα αναφορών του Βικιλεξικού (reference Templates @el.wiktionary)
  • in wikitext: at text (e.g. at Etymology), add <ref>{{R:DSMG}}</ref> AND under References: <references/ >. It automatically puts little numbers with all references there. OR, place {R:XXXXX} under References, OR: place {R:XXXX} under Further reading.
  • my biblio-records, untill 2010: my biblio 2010


terms in dictionaries[edit]

terms in greek dictionaries - eng. translation

division of greek language

About the demarcation οριοθέτηση of periods (περιοδολόγηση) in main greek monolingual dictionaries.


  • IATE (= “Inter-Active Terminology for Europe”) is the EU's inter-institutional terminology database. IATE has been used in the EU institutions and agencies since summer 2004 for the collection, dissemination and shared management of EU-specific terminology.


list of dictionaries: retr:2017. (in Greek)

Penguin-hellenews αγγλοελληνικόν λεξικόν. (1984) [English-Greek dictionary.] Athens: Hellenews-Education, 3rd ed: 1984. 1st ed: 1975.

english→greek dictionary Penguin.1984 Bilingual dictionary from english to greek.
Printed book. lang:gre.eng. ISBN:NO
  • PROTOTYPE: Garmonsway, G.N. & Simpson, Jacqueline. The Penguin english dictionary. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1965.


Dimitrakos Dimitrakos, Dimitrios B. (1964) Μέγα λεξικόν ὅλης τῆς Ἑλληνικῆς γλώσσης [Great Dictionary of the entire Greek Language] (in Greek), Athens: Hellenic Paideia

Printed books. lang:gre. script:polytonic. Subsequent publishing: in fifteen (15) volumes


list of dictionaries: retr:2017. (in Greek)
Georgakas, D. Modern Greek-English Dictionary {MGED} (Only letter Alpha retr:2018)

gre Ancient[edit]

Beekes {{R:grc:Beekes}} Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010) Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN

  • Robert Stephen Paul Beekes (his name in dutch [ˈbeːkəs]) Dutch linguist (1937‑2017)
  • Volume 1 = intro, abbreviations xlviii (48 pages). Lemmata: Α = p.1 to Λp.885
    • Volume 2 = Μ p.887 to p.1685. Bibliography: pp.1687‑1745, indices pp.1747‑1808
  • [1], [2]

Liddell-Scott & Jones. w:A Greek–English Lexicon in three sizes are sometimes referred to as "The Little Liddell" (1843), "The Middle Liddell" (1889) and "The Big Liddell" or "The Great Scott" (1943‑1996).
-1. LSJ - 'Little Liddell' (1843) known in Greek as 'Επιτομή του Μεγάλου Λεξικού...'
Α in Liddell & Scott (1940) A Greek–English Lexicon, Oxford: Clarendon Press

-2. Middle Liddell (1889)
α in Liddell & Scott (1889) An Intermediate Greek–English Lexicon, New York: Harper & Brothers

  • {{R:Middle Liddell|α}} {{R:Middle Liddell}}
  • online greekTool@perseus
  • online in greek translation with abbreviations nicely shown onmouseover
  • Printed book. lang:gre. script:polytonic. 4 volumes, plus a 5th (Supplement). trans:eng.→gre: Xenophon P. Moschos.
    • Liddell, Henry George & Scott, Robert. Μέγα λεξικόν της ελληνικής γλώσσης. μτφ: Ξενοφών Π. Μόσχος. 4 τόμοι. Αθήνα: Ιωάννης ΣΙΔΕΡΗΣ, n.d.
      5ος τόμος: Συμπλήρωμα του Μεγάλου Λεξικού συνταχθέν υπό ομάδος φιλολόγων. Αθήνα: Ιωάννης ΣΙΔΕΡΗΣ, 1977.
    • Great lexicon of greek language. Translator: Xenophon P. Moschos. 5 vols. Athens: Ioannis Sideris, n.d. lang:gre.
    • 5th vol: Supplement to the Mega Lexicon compiled by a group of philologists. Athens: Ioannis Sideris, 1977. lang:gre.
    • The Supplement includes ecclesiastical and byzantine words and phrases compiled by a group of greek philologists.
    • The publishing house ΣΙΔΕΡΗΣ may be Σίδερης or Σιδέρης. I saw iτ as Ιωάννης Σιδέρης. Not the translator Ζήσιμος Σίδερης.

DGE Sarri.greek/ref in the Diccionario Griego–Español en línea (2006–2020)


gre Ancient tools[edit]


perseus: search for word

perseus headword search

proper nouns by Woodhouse

  • Woodhouse, S. C. (1910) English–Greek Dictionary: A Vocabulary of the Attic Language[3], London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Limited, page 999
  • {{R:Woodhouse|pagenumber 999 on}} {{R:Woodhouse}}

eng.gre Ancient[edit]

Woodhouse Woodhouse, S. C. (1910) English–Greek Dictionary: A Vocabulary of the Attic Language[4], London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Limited, page 1

gre Ancient - etymology[edit]

as in κλείω

gre Ancient verbs[edit]

Category:Ancient Greek verbs
el:Κατηγορία:Ρήματα (αρχαία ελληνικά)
Also see #grammars

Smyth [Appendix:List of Verbs] at #Smyth's Grammar

verb forms[edit]

Bodoh, John J. An Index of Greek Verb Forms. Hildesheim & New York, 1970.

intro in greek
at Digital Reources
e.g. κλει- as used in κλείω


verb dictionaries[edit]

Asonitis, Nik. S. (1963) Λεξικό βασικών ρημάτων της αρχαίας ελληνικής γλώσσας [Dictionary of basic verbs of Ancient Greek] (in Greek)

Printed book. 330 pages.

Papavranousis, L.I. Sfyroeras, V.V. (1967) Λεξικό ρημάτων της αρχαίας ελληνικής. [Verb-Dictionary of Ancient Greek] (in Greek) 7th ed. Athens: Gregoriadis Bookshop, 1967. 1st ed: 1954.

Printed book. 321 pages.
  • (Παπαβρανούσης, Λ.Ι. - Σφυρόερας, Β.Β. Αθήναι: Βιβλιοπωλείον Γρηγοριάδη, 1967. Έβδομη έκδοση)
  • online jpg pages@projethomere retr:2017.12.23.

Tremopoulos, K.A. Mavropoulos, Th.G. (1992) Λεξικό Ρημάτων της Αρχαίας Ελληνικής [Verb-Dictionary of Ancient Greek] (in Greek) Thessaloniki: n.p. 1992.

Printed book. 434 pages.
  • No prosody marked. Extensive intro on syntax with ref.numbers for the verbs. Useful Appendix with Categories/Lists of verbs. (Μαυρόπουλος, Κ.Α. - Τρεμόπουλος, Θ.Γ. Θεσσαλονίκη: 1992)
  • online jpg.pages@projecthomere retr:2017.12.23.

gre Mediaeval[edit]

Med: Medieval Greek (Byzantine). Byzantine is up to 1453. The era 1500-1700 is Late Medieval or Early Modern.


Kriaras Kriaras, Emmanuel (vol.1 1969-) , “α”, in Επιτομή του Λεξικού της Μεσαιωνικής Ελληνικής Δημώδους Γραμματείας [Concise Dictionary of Medieval Vulgar Greek Literature (1100–1669) Vols. I–XIV] (in Greek), Online edition

LBG Sarri.greek/ref in Trapp, Erich, et al. (1994–2007) Lexikon zur byzantinischen Gräzität besonders des 9.-12. Jahrhunderts [the Lexicon of Byzantine Hellenism, Particularly the 9th–12th Centuries], Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften

Sophocles, Evangelinos Apostolides (1900) , “Sarri.greek/ref”, in Greek Lexicon of the Roman and Byzantine Periods (from B. C. 146 to A. D. 1100), New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons

  • {{R:grc:Sophocles}} {{R:grc:Sophocles}} (up to 1100)
  • Αποστολίδης, Ευαγγελινός (a.k.a. Sophocles) (1807-1888) greek Hellenist from the beautiful village w:Tsagkarada, prof. at Harvard.
  • his given name: Eυαγγελινός. surname: Αποστολίδης.
  • nickname: when young, his mentor, the famous Άνθιμος Γαζής, called him 'little Sophoclesw'. This is how he is known to the academia.
  • bio @wikipedia.greek retr:2017.
  • bio retr:2017. lang:gre. [source of where 'Sophocles' came from]

gre Modern[edit]

Babiniotis w:Babiniotis Dictionary

Printed book. Not online. No I.P.A, included Comments/Scholia (discussions of common mistakes, etc.)

____________Babiniotis, Georgios (2002) Λεξικό της νέας ελληνικής γλώσσας [Modern Greek Dictionary] (in Greek), 2nd edition, Athens: Lexicology Centre

____________Babiniotis, Georgios (2008) Λεξικό της νέας ελληνικής γλώσσας [Modern Greek Dictionary] (in Greek), 3rd edition, Athens: Lexicology Centre

  • {{R:Babiniotis 2008}} {{R:Babiniotis 2008}}
  • author Babiniotis is a professor of linguistics. He's hosted lots of tv programmes for the greek language, so, he is widely known to the general public.
w:Georgios_Babiniotis, Γεώργιος Μπαμπινιώτης+photo and his

Babiniotis (2010) his Etymological Dict. Babiniotis, Georgios (2010) , “Sarri.greek/ref”, in Etymologikó lexikó tis néas ellinikís glóssas [Etymological Dictionary of Modern Greek] (in Greek), Athens: Lexicology Centre

DSMG α in Λεξικό της κοινής νεοελληνικής [Dictionary of Standard Modern Greek], 1998, by the "Triantafyllidis" Foundation.

Printed book. ISBN:960‑231‑085‑5.
  • Named after the greek linguist #Manolis Triantafyllidis, champion of Demotic Greek, author of neohellenic grammar, etc
  • includes IPA but modified. Accent ON the vowel (probably they wanted to save space). Their x^ = ç etc. see. their greek pronunciation explanations @pyli
  • includes inflection tables: The online inflection links do not function (2017) my tables-corrected
  • Institute Triantafyllidιs publications etc.)

OEDB Ορθογραφικό - Ερμηνευτικό Λεξικό Δ' Ε' ΣΤ' Δημοτικού. Το Λεξικό μας. [Orthographic - Explanatory Dictionary D, E, F Primary School. Our Dictionary] (in Greek) Athens: Institute for Publishing Educational Books \by the Ministry of Education of Greece\, n.d.

Authors: Γεώργιος Δ.Καψάλης. Αθανάσιος Πασχάλης. Στέφανος Τσιάλος. Δημήτριος Γουλής.
Printed book. Official schoolbook. illusterated. lang:gre. ISBN:NO.
  • online retr:2017.11.02. (htm in chapters. No inner links.)
  • includes hyphenation
  • includes Appendix with useful tables on pronunciation, inflections, numerals, computper jargon, main historical facts.

Vostantzoglou, Theologos. (Βοσταντζόγλου, Θεολόγος) (1895‑1984) Greek merchant who composed greek dictionaries.
__________. (1967) Αναλυτικό Ορθογραφικό Λεξικό Νεοελληνικής Γλώσσας (Καθαρευούσης και Δημοτικής). [Detailed Orthographic Dictionary of Neohellenic Language (Katharevousa and Demotic)] (in Greek) Athens: n.p.

Printed book. 608 pp. + i-xvi (16 pp) introduction. ISBN:no.
  • he spells his surname: Vostajoglou.
  • online @projethomere retr:2017.12.26.
  • sarri.note: Presents Katharevousa and the then (1960s) Demotic which was not identical to our today's (2017) crystallized neohellenic standard modern greek. Useful inflection tables (page 415) Kath/Demotic juxtaposed. Here are some notable differences with today's demotic standard:
    • --Verbs: the ε augment for past tenses (Imperfect, Simple Past) is now less in use in some types: e.g. λυνόμουν - (ε)λυνόμουν. Today, one would employ this ε for euphonic reasons.
    • Subiunctivus (Υποτακτική) was still used in demotic (cf. Triantafyllides schoolgrammar of the time) e.g. να κάνης, να κάνη (without the υπογεγραμμένη which is used in ancient: νά κάνῃ)

____________. (1998) Αντιλεξικόν ή Ονομαστικόν της Ελληνικής Γλώσσης. [Antilexicon or Onomasticon of Greek Language] (in Greek) Athens: n.p. Copyright 1962.

Printed book. Thesaurus (no definitions). 1240 pages.

gre Modern verbs[edit]

Category:Greek verbs
el:Κατηγορία:Ρήματα (ελληνικά)
Also see #grammars

Jordanidou Jordanidou, Anna (2004) Τα ρήματα της νέας ελληνικής [Modern Greek Verbs], Athens: Patakis Publishers Written in 1991.

Klairis, Christos. Babiniotis, Georgios. Γραμματική της Νέας Ελληνικής. ΙΙ. To Ρήμα της Νέας Ελληνικής, [Grammar of Modern Greek. II. The Modern Greek Verb] Athens: Hellenica Grammata, 1999.

Ralli, Angeliki

  • For her verb-categorization cf.

linguistics[edit] Λεξικό γλωσσολογικών όρων [Dictionary of Linguistic Terms] (in Greek)

Website. lang:gre. script:monotonic. Titles of articles also in english.

medical terms[edit]

Angelopoulos, Nicephoros B. (2009) Ιατρική ψυχολογία και ψυχοπαθολογία. (Μια σύγχρονη Ψυχιατρική). [Medical psychology and psychopathology (A contemporary Psychiatry)] (in Greek) Athens: Βήτα (Beta), 2009.

Printed book: 2 vols. 816 pp. ISBN13 9789604520794.


I include here the current (2018) official greek schoolbooks.

gre Ancient grammars[edit]

Dionysius Thrax Διονύσιος ὁ Θρᾷξ (170–90 BCE). Τέχνη Γραμματική [The Art of Grammar]

Ikonomou, Mich, Ch. (n.d.) Γραμματική της Αρχαίας Ελληνικής. Γυμνασίου-Λυκείου. [Grammar of Ancient Greek. Gymnasium-Lyceym] (in Greek, Primary-Secondary school) Athens: Institute for Publishing Educational Books \by the Ministry of Education of Greece\, n.d.

Printed book. Official schoolbook (ages 12-18) lang:gre. script: monotonic, polytonic for ancient greek. ISBN:not found.
  • online: retr:2017.11.02. .htm in chapters. No inner links.
  • Ikonomou's 1971 grammar revised; a synopsis.

Smyth, Herbert Weir (1920) , “Part I: Letters, Sounds, Syllables, Accent”, in A Greek grammar for colleges, Cambridge: American Book Company, § 1

Stamatakos, Dr Ioannis. (1973) Iστορική Γραμματική της Aρχαίας Eλληνικής. [Historical Grammar of Ancient Greek] (in Greek) 3rd ed. Athens: Phoenix, 1973. 1st ed: 1949.

Printed book. lang:gre. scr:gre.poly. xxiii+566 p. ISBN:no.
  • grammar of dialects of ancient greek.

Tzartzanos, Achilleus, A. (1948) Γραμματική της αρχαίας ελληνικής γλώσσης. [Grammar of ancient greek language] (in Greek) Athens: Institute for Educational Books Publishing \by the Ministry of Education of Greece\

Printed book. lang:gre.katharevousa. scr:gre.polytonic.

_____________. (1967) Γραμματική της αρχαίας ελληνικής γλώσσης. [Grammar of ancient greek language] (in Greek Katharevousa) 2nd edition.

  • online htm pages ends abruptly at 'Verbs'
  • Many editions followed, transferred in modern greek, suitable for later generations of students. As in 201?, a different Grammar, by #Ikonomou, is used in greek schools.

gre Modern grammars[edit]

list of grammars: retr:2017. (in Greek, plus reviews)

Triantafyllidis, Manolis.
Νεοελληνική Γραμματική. Αναπροσαρμογή της Μικρής Νεοελληνικής Γραμματικής του Μανόλη Τριανταφυλλίδη. [Neohellenic Grammar. Revision of the Small Neohellenic Grammar by Manolis Triantafyllidis] (in Greek) Athens: Institute for Publishing Educational Books \by the Ministry of Education of Greece\, n.d.

Printed book. Official schoolbook for many decades prior 201?. no date.

and A...Z:

Hatzisavvidis, Sofronis & Hatzisavvidou, Athanasia. (n.d.) Γραμματική Νέας Ελληνικής Γλώσσας. Α' Β' Γ' Γυμνασίου. [Grammar of Modern Greek Language. A B C Gymnasium (Secondary School)] (in Greek) Athens: Institute for Publishing Educational Books \by the Ministry of Education of Greece\, n.d.

Printed book. Official school textbook (ages 12-14). lang:gre. script: monotonic. ISBN:not found.
  • online retr:2017.11.02. htm chapters. No inner links.
  • sarri.notes.2017: Traditional-style terminology. Limited inflection tables. The inflections from ancient greek are presented as 'morphological variety'.

Holton, David; Mackridge, Peter; Philippaki-Warburton, Irene (1997) Greek: A Comprehensive Grammar of the Modern Language, London: Routledge

____________. (2012) Greek: A Comprehensive Grammar of the Modern Language, 2nd ed. London: Routledge

Printed book. lang:eng. (& gre. script:monotonic.) 688 pages. ISBN:1136626387, 9781136626388.
  • online: retr:2017.
  • sarri.note: Grammar & Syntax sections. Leading reference guide. Detailed phonology section, good paradigmata. Etymology and correspondence of learned forms to ancient greek is not explained.

Holton, David; Mackridge, Peter; Philippaki-Warburton, Irene (2004) Greek: An Essential Grammar of the Modern Language, London: Routledge

____________. (2016)

Iordanidou, Anna. Σημειώσεις Νεοελληνικής Γλώσσας I [Notes for Neohellenic Language I] (in Greek). Patras: University of Patras, 2001. retr:2017.12.16.

Philippaki-Warburton, Irene, et al. (n.d.) Γραμματική Ε' και ΣΤ' Δημοτικού. [Grammar 5th and 6th classes of Demoticon (Primary School)] Athens: Institute for Educational Books Publishing \by the Ministry of Education of Greece\, n.d.

Printed book. Official school textbook (ages 10-12) lang:gre. script: monotonic. ISBN:?.
  • online retr:2017.11.02. htm chapters. No inner links.
  • sarri.notes.2017: Introduces for the first time in greek educational history, contemporary nomenclature. Although inevitably simple (for children), it covers all subjects. Well chosen examples. Some mistakes found (misprints). Philippaki is the co-writer of #Holton-Mackridge's well-known Comprehensive Grammar for modern greek.

greek language and literature[edit]

list of books: retr:2017. (in Greek, plus reviews)

Christidis, A.‑F. (ed.) (2000) Iστoρία της Eλληνικής Γλώσσας από τις αρχές έως την ύστερη αρχαιότητα. [History of Hellenic Language from the beginning to late antiquity] 1st ed. Thessaloniki: Centre for the Greek Language, with the contribution of the Institute for Modern Greek Studies (Manolis Triandafyllidis Foundation), September 2001.

Printed book. xxviii+1213 p. ISBN:960‑231‑094‑4.
  • my biblio.record
  • English translation: A History of Ancient Greek: From the Beginnings to Late Antiquity. Cambridge: University Press, 2007.
  • online retr:2017.
  • excellent

Kopidakis, M.A. (ed.). (2000) Iστoρία της Eλληνικής Γλώσσας. [History of Greek Language] 3rd ed. Athens: The Hellenic Literary and Historical Archive (ELIA), 2000. 1st ed:1999.

Printed book. xxiii+437 p. ISBN:960‑201‑122‑X. Reprints by MIET.

Lesky, Albin. (1981) Ιστορία της αρχαίας ελληνικής λογοτεχνίας. [History of the ancient greek literature] (in Greek) 5th ed. revised. trans:ger→gre: Agapitos G. Tsopanakis. From the 3rd edition in German, 1971. Thessalonike: Kyriakidis Bros, 1981. 1st ed: 1965.

lang:gre. script:polytonic. Printed book. 1256 pages. ISBN=no.
  • PROTOTYPE: Geschichte der griechischen Literatur. Berne: Francke, 1957. lang:ger.
  • my biblio.record


also see #verbs

greek participles[edit]

also see # greek verbs

Jordanidou, Anna. (1985) La diglossie en Grèce: Étude d’un cas précis, le participe. (in French) Thèse pour le Doctorat de 3ème cycle de Linguistique, Université de Paris VII, 1985.

Katsouda, Georgia. (2009?). Ο σχηματισμός του πληθυντικού αριθμού των μετοχών ηγουμένη, εφαπτομένη, προϊσταμένη,συνισταμένη, υφισταμένη: συμπεράσματα και εφαρμογές. [The formation of the plural in the participles ηγουμένη, εφαπτομένη, προϊσταμένη, συνισταμένη, υφισταμένη: conclusions and applications] (in Greek)

  • online retr:2018.03.17. at, uploaded 2014.06.10. by/User:Flyax
  • Also: Κατσούδα, Γεωργία/Katsouda, Georgia. “The formation of the plural of the ηγουμένη, προϊσταμένη, υφισταμένη, συνισταμένη, εφαπτομένη: theory and reality”. In the Proceedings of the 30th International Conference on Functional Linguistics (Cyprus 2006.10.18-21.)

Nikolaou, Georgia. (2016) Τα νεολογικά επίθετα της κοινής νεοελληνικής. [Newly coined adjectives in Modern Greek] (in Greek). PhD. Thessaloniki University, 2016.

  • Νικολάου, Γεωργία. Her doctral thesis. Supervisors: Anastasiadi-Symeonidi, Anna. Iordanidou, Anna. Kyriakopoulou, Panagiota.
  • online retr:2018.05.24.
  • neologism. adjective. participle.

Valeontis, Kostas. Frangopoulos Stelios. (2005) Η χρήση της μετοχής των ρημάτων της νεοελληνικής στην οροδοσία/ονοματοδοσία των ειδικών θεματικών πεδίων. [Use of the participle of Modern Greek verbs for naming special subject fields] (in Greek) ELETO 5th Conference, 2005.

  • online retr:2018.03.03.
  • Βαλεοντής, Κώστας. Φραγκόπουλος, Στέλιος.
  • about ancient/learned participles in sci-terminology (medicine, computers, etc.)
  • ancient-modern syntactic categorizations: comparisons, useful tables
  • tables of frequent occurences in sci-nomenclature


also see #verbs

greek present perfect: παρακείμενος[edit]

also see #verbs
  • Discussion of difference of Παρακείμενος Α & Παρακείμενος Β

Ralli, Angeliki (Ράλλη, Αγγελική). Μελισσαροπούλου, Δήμητρα. Τσολακίδης, Συμεών. (2006) Ο Παρακείμενος στη Νέα Ελληνική και στις Διαλέκτους. [Present Perfect in Modern Greek and in Dialects.] (in Greek) online pdf@upatras retr:2018.03.03.

  • In: Mελέτες για την Ελληνική Γλώσσα. Μνήμη Α-Φ. Χριστίδη. 2006. 361-372.


textbooks, schoolbooks:



Great Britain[edit]

?? I cannot find a list from their Ministry of Edu, or an Associated Board of...


ages 6-18 (6-12 = Demoticon, 12-15=Gymnasium, 15-18=Lyceum)

  • retr:2017. pdfs and htm without inner links. Just the books.


also see #participles, #perfect

greek verbs[edit]

also see #greek participles, #greek present perfect: παρακείμενος

See #gre Ancient verbs.
See #gre Modern verbs.
See #iordanidou Dictionary of verbs.