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Sarri.greektalk referenceaudionounsverbsαβγόαἴρω & αἱρῶΤ' αστέρι του βοριά (song)
LABtest1fontsverbstArT1 · aT3, T4, ... — menu@el.wikt


Category:Greek verbs
Appendix:Greek verbs
Category:Greek verbs by inflection type
Category:Greek verb inflection-table templates
Wiktionary:Greek verb inflection-table templates
Wiktionary:Greek verb inflection-table templates/Parameters
Module:category tree/poscatboiler/data/lang-specific/el

Criteria for grouping Modern Greek verbs

  • the phonetic description of stem's ending, the stem patterns and corresponding conjugation style

Also see other types of groups

4 stems produce all verb forms. The stems

  • of present (for active and passive)
  • of active past (or aorist)
  • of passive past (or aorist)
  • οf the passive perfect participle:

Here marked bold is their characteristic sound.


Categories (CAT) with many verbs are marked with !!
{...} curly braces include ancient forms
[...] square brackets include pronunciation as IPA(key): check: [δ] (like this), [θ] (like thorn), [x] (like Scottish Lokh), [γ] (like arabic γain)
[1] stands for any vowel.
$ stands for any consonant
∅ stands for zero sound
ppp = passive perfect participle (CAT). The existence of ppp often depends on sense rather than grammar.
i. is the Iordanidu(Jordanidou) code number for verbs. i.Verzeichnis.

1st conjugation[edit]

Consontant stems[edit]


Characteristic last consonant of stems, in phonetic alphabet are: IPA(key): [p v f   t ð θ   k ɣ x   l r   m n   s z]

The orders by characteristic last consonant are:

The nu verbs acquired this -ν- in many ways[2] and from many groups.

p v f[edit]



Category:Greek verb conjugation group 'διαψεύδω' -εύδω-ευσα-εύσθηκα-ευσμένος



only passive:

The [δίδω] verbs -δω, -δομαι ancient verbs


  • bisyllabic, only active, only present: βρίθω Cat:defective




User:Sarri.greek/verbs/go still under construction


The [x] verbs -χω, -χομαι

(Also see -χνω verbs)

irregulars -χω

  • κατάσχω (etymological group of έχω)
    • active+passive, -ppp: κατάσχω, no imperfect, κατάσχεσα, κατέσχεσα, κατάσχομαι κατασχέθηκα
    • only passive (ppp): υπόσχομαι, υποσχέθηκα, [rare ppp υποσχεμένος, {υπεσχημένος}]
    • i.168+169


The [l] verbs -λλω, -λλομαι / and -λω

With 2 λλ

With 1 λ, irregulars:

  • only active, +ppp: θέλω, ήθελα, θέλησα & {ηθελημένος}/θελημένος with extra present types (i.157)
  • only active, -ppp: οφείλω όφειλα (active imperfecitive only present stem)

With 2 λλ

[lo] [all-al-_-_] Category:Greek verb conjugation group 'θάλλω' stems θαλλ-, θαλ-

Rare, ancient verbs.

User:Sarri.greek/verbs/lo - Category:Greek verb conjugation group 'αγγέλλω'

στέλλω compounds stems στελ-, σταλ- like αποστέλλω, απέστειλα - αποστέλλομαι, {απεστάλην} & {απεσταλμένος} (with aoristB)


[lo] [ll-l-alθ/al-al] Category:Greek verb conjugation group 'ψάλλω' stems ψαλλ-, ψαλθ- & ψαλ- aoristΒ
ψάλλωψέλνω, έψαλα - ψάλλομαι, ψάλθηκα/{εψάλην} & ψαλμένος


User:Sarri.greek/verbs/ro ΕΚΚΡΕΜΕΙ


  • ξέρω, ήξερα (only active, imperfective, -ppp) i.217


[mno] See at [no].

[mo] [m-s-st-s] (-μω-σα-στηκα-σμένος) = [$o]

-{νέμω}: -ένειμα-ένειμα-νείμω -νέμομαι-νεμήθηκα-νεμημένος






z-ks-xt-γ = for 21+22, 23+24, 25+26, 27+28, 29+30, 31+32

Vowel stems[edit]


NOTE: the of actives 05 (διαλύω) and 40 (αποκλείω) are identical: the only difference is the ppp. Their passives differ.


νύω from νυμι[edit]

2nd conjugation[edit]

2nd Categories Template:el-conjug-sub5/Table
Category:Greek 2nd conjugation verbs by inflection type - Category:Greek 2nd conjugation groups

2nd A1[edit]

2nd Class A1 -άω/ώ-άς-ά/άει, passive -ιέμαι. Imperfect -ούσα / -αγα, or only -ούσα.

The 2nd A1 verbs -άω/-ώ, -άς, -ά... passive -ιέμαι

Also, characteristic active imperfect with two forms: in -ούσα & -αγα.


Category:Greek verb conjugation group 'κοιτάω-κοιτώ' αξ-άχτ-αγ     -άω.-ώ, (-ούσα/-αγα), -αξα * -ιέμαι, -άχτηκα & -αγμένος



  • -ασ-, -άστ- & -ασ-
  • And see variant νάω/νώ

List of verbs


ν+άω/ώ ασ-άστ-ασ     -άω.-ώ, (-ούσα/-αγα), -ασα, -ιέμαι, -άστηκα & -ασμένος
List of verbs

And see: without v (n) Category:Greek verb conjugation group 'γελάω-γελώ'
i68+69 περνάω with n



  • -ησ-, -ήθ- & -η-

!! αγαπάω-ώ verbs where -ώ is not used (taken off the conjugation table:

similar to Category:Greek verb conjugation group 'αγαπάω-αγαπώ' but with different participle: -ισμένος instead of -ημένος

List of verbs

+ίστηκα +ισμένος[edit]
+full-ίζω forms[edit]

Verbs with parallel form -ίζω, which gives the -ισμένος participle:


  • ηξ-ήχτ-ηγ -άω.ώ, (-ούσα/αγα), -ηξα * -ιέμαι, -ήχτηκα & -ηγμένος

List of verbs



i.70.173 = ίζω (ορίζω) 1st. zo

  • see -ησ- forms with +ίστηκα +ισμένος

2nd A1 double infix[edit]

About past (perfective) imperatives:

  • colloquial verbs get extra imperatives: singular apocopic -χ' +accusative of article & noun or weak pronoun, plural -χτε.

i.58+59 & 66.

  • (ησ & εσ) Cat?

2nd A2[edit]

The 2nd A2 verbs -ώ, -άς, -ά... passive -ώμαι

2nd Class A2 -ώ-άς-ά, passive -ώμαι imperfect only -ούσα


-ασ-άστ-ασ  ??+άω??, ΝΟάω??

i.70+71 ανακλώ


-ησ-ήθ-η- Category:Greek verb conjugation group 'ανακτώ'

About internatl augments

i.60+61 ανακτώ / infix ησ2 at {{el-conjug-2nd-A2}} /

2nd A combinations[edit]

Class A combinations

2nd-A1-A2 = + άω only s1, passive -ώμαι

2nd-A1-Α1A2 = -άω/ώ, passive -ιέμαι / -ώμαι


its reverse???: 2nd-A1-A2A1 = -άω/ώ, passive -ώμαι, -ιέμαι

2nd-A1r-A2Α1 = -ώ/-άω (-ώ more frequent), passive -ώμαι / -ιέμαι
      A1 Reversed sequence of -άω/-ώ to ώ/-άω (-ώ more frequent) like αναγεννώ, perhaps κυβερνώ etc

2nd-A2-A2A1 = (no -άω), passive -ώμαι / -ιέμαι (colloquial) Category:Greek verbs conjugating like 'εξαρτώ'

2nd-A2 with A1 only colloquially

  • A1 note at the A2 tables. E.g:

2nd B[edit]

2nd Class B Present endings: -ώ, -είς, -εί, -ούμε, -είτε-, -ούν, passive: -ούμαι, -είσα, -είτε, -ούμαστε, -είστε, -ούνται

2B ησ[edit]

Category:Greek verb conjugation group 'ασκώ', άσκ-ησ-α, ασκ-ήθ-ηκα & ασκ-η-μένος

Present endings: -ώ, -είς, -εί, ... Interfix: -ησ-, -ηθ-. This group includes verbs with

-ώ, -είς...ησ-ηθ-η Category:Greek verb conjugation group 'ασκώ'
ασκώ, άσκησα, ασκούμαι, ασκήθηκα & ασκημένος
List of verbs


-ώ, -είς...ησ-ηθ-η Category:Greek verb conjugation group 'ποιώ' - ποιώ
The active, like 'ασκώ'. The passive, imperfect -ούμουν plus -όμουν


2B ησ combinations[edit]

Category:Greek verb conjugation group 'αδικώ', αδίκ-ησ-α - αδικ-ούμαι/αδικιέμαι, αδικ-ήθ-ηκα & αδικ-η-μένος

Present endings: -ώ, -είς, -εί, ... Interfix: -ησ-, -ηθ-. This group includes verbs with

List of verbs

Category:Greek verb conjugation group 'ευχαριστώ', ευχαρίστ-ησ-α - ευχαριστιέμαι/ευχαριστούμαι, ευχαριστ-ήθ-ηκα & ευχαριστ-η-μένος

Present endings: -ώ, -είς, -εί, ... Interfix: -ησ-, -ηθ-. This group includes verbs with

List of verbs

2B εσ[edit]

εσ-εστ-εσ Category:Greek verb conjugation group 'τελώ' - τελώ)


εσ-εθ-ε Category:Greek verb conjugation group 'διαιρώ' - διαιρώ)


καλεσ-καλεστ-κληθ Category:Greek verb conjugation group 'καλώ' - καλώ)


i.76+163 (at 164 no προκαλέσου imperative)

2nd combinations[edit]

Category:Greek 2nd conjugation combinations

Class A (2A) -άω/ώ, -άς, -ά, ... present endings combined with Class B (2B) -ώ, -είς, -εί, ... present endings


Verb A1 (act+pass) with dated A2 (-ώ-είς-εί..) active present forms: πατάω.πατώ


Mixed Class A + Class B Doube Class Α-άω/ώ, -άς, -άς... & Β -ώ, -είς, -εί

Category:Greek verb conjugation group 'ζητάω-ζητώ'

These verbs conjugate as 2nd Conjugation Class A1 (with -α, -ιέμαι endings) and as Class B (with -είς, -ούμαι endings)

The sense of active and passive is different in some verbs.
Reversed, with more common Class B endings: cf. Category:Greek verbs conjugating like 'κληρονομώ'

-άω/-ώ, -ούσα/-αγα, -ησα, passive -ιέμαι, -ήθηκα & -ημένος plus -ώ, -είς, εί..., passive -ούμαι

Also see variant widh different participle in ισμένος at #group αγρυπνώ i.58.73+59.74

κληρονομώ/κληρονομάω - κληρονομούμαι/κληρονομιέμαι (ησ 73.58+74.59)

These verbs conjugate as 2nd Conjugation Class B (with -είς, -ούμαι endings) and colloquially as Class A1 (with -α, -ιέμαι endings).

The sense of active and passive is different in some verbs.
Reversed, with more common Class A endings: cf. Category:Greek verbs conjugating like 'ζητάω-ζητώ'

Category:Greek verb conjugation group 'αγρυπνώ' ?????????? act+pass + ισμένος??? Like #group 'ζητάω-ζητώ' but with different participle: -ισμένος

  • also, with double forms -ηθ- & -ιστ-, -ημένος & -ισμένος: τυραννάω.τυραννώ
  • i.58 with -ισμένος

παρακαλώ (76.62 εσ + 78, 163 καλούμαι)







Combinations 2nd B + A passive



-ώ / -άω/-ώ, passive -ιέμαι (act: 2nd Class B, A, passive: 2nd Class A)


2nd C[edit]

deponent verbs (only passive voice)


verb λυπώ, λύπησα, λυπάμαι / λυπούμαι, λυπήθηκα & λυπημένος (active B + passive C)

Notes Class 1[edit]

lass 1 with two variant endings: -άω / -ώ

The sequence of the two endings may be

These nuances are described at Alternative forms section. cf. (γελάω#Alternative_forms_2)
Printed dictionaries traditionarlly lemmatize the -ώ variant, as it was the older one. But for demotic verbs, they lemmatize the -άω variant first (see Topics: -άω).
In en.wiktionary the conjugation is presented at -άω, unless -ώ takes precedence.

Their etymology: e.g. for γελάω / γελώ
«With ending -άω to γελώ (geló) in the pattern of 3rd person -άει. From Ancient Greek γελῶ (gelô), contracted form of γελάω (geláō)
Note, that the -ώ ending is NOT a contraction of -άω as it happened in ancient verbs.
The chronological sequence is:

ancient uncontracted -άω, -έω, -όω > ancient contracted -ῶ > mediaeval and modern -ῶ (monotonic -ώ) > mediaeval and modern -άω in the pattern of 3rd person -άει
e.g. γελάω (geláō) > γελῶ (gelô) > med/mod.polytonic γελῶ monotonic γελώ (geló) > med/mod γελάω (geláo)


άω Holton[edit]

Holton (Comprehensive Grammar) chooses -ώ-άω.

  • at (p.150) he comments: ... the choice between alternative forms is largely a matter of personal preference, with some regional variation.

άω Iordanidou[edit]

Anna Iordanidou[3] indexes 1st Class verbs as -άω/-ώ for Modern Greek. She adds specific notes like (σπάνιο (rare) or δεν συνηθίζεται (it is not 'done', it is not used) which is stronger than rare.

άω DSMG[edit]

DSMG[4] like most dictionaries lemmatizes -ώ. But its example-phrases are mostly of the -άω variant. Notable exceptions for very informal verbs:


α...ω (alphabetically) -also their compounds- (Category:Greek irregular verbs) [5]


Irregular dependent[edit]

Category:Greek irregular verbs with short dependent
With monosyllabic active dependent in compounds: oxytone: the stress is at last syllable (templates needed)
They also have other irregularities. They are:

# present dependent past passive p-dependent p-past ppp
01) ..-{βαίνω} ..-βω -έβηκα{-έβην} ..-βαίνομαι .. ..{-εβάθην} ..{-βεβασμένος}
01.-) ανεβαίνω ανεβώ ανέβηκα .. .. .. ανεβασμένος
01.-) διαβαίνω διαβώ διάβηκα .. .. .. ..
01.-) συμβαίνει only 3rd συμβεί συνέβη(κε) .. .. .. ..
02) βγαίνω βγω βγήκα .. βγαλθώ βγάλθηκα βγαλμένος
03) βλέπω δω είδα βλέπομαι ειδωθώ ειδώθηκα ιδωμένος
04) βρίσκω βρω βρήκα βρίσκομαι βρεθώ βρέθηκα ..
05) .. .. .. έρχομαι 'ρθώ & έρθω ήρθα/ήλθα ..
06) λέω & λέγω πω είπα λέγομαι ειπωθώ ειπώθηκα/λέχθηκα ειπωμένος
07) μπαίνω < {ἐμβαίνω} μπω μπήκα .. .. .. μπασμένος
08) πίνω πιω ήπια πίνομαι (πιωθώ) (πιώθηκα) πιωμένος
09) συγχαίρω {χαίρω} συγχαρώ {συνεχάρην}/συγχάρηκα ..{-ομαι} ..{-χαρώ} ..{-εχάρην} ..{κεχαρμένος}

and their compounds.


Types of groups[edit]

  • bisyllabic: Cat:?
  • defective verbs (CAT): may be the following groups, but also, verbs which have only specific tenses or persons
    • 3rd person verbs (CAT)
      • impersonal verbs (CAT): only in 3rd persons
  • active forms only (CAT)
  • passive forms only. Called deponent verbs (CAT)
  • imperfective at active and passive CAT?
  • imperfective, only active CAT?
  • imperfective, only passive CAT?
  • irregular verbs (CAT) may belong to a conjugation, but have unique characteristics. The lists may vary. See Irregulars.
  • suppletive verbs CAT


Imperatives apocopic active 2nd forms + weak pronouns: never for formal or ancient verbs.

DOUBLE conjugations

Double conjugation full:

Double conjugation at passive:

  • -άρω, άρομαι & αρίζομαι act+pass, +ppp: πουδράρω, πουδράρομαι/πουδραρίζομαι

DOUBLE forms for tenses of past time (imperfect, past/aorist):

aorist ην[edit]

Verbs with plus stem from the ancient aorist-Beta sometimes, plus the ancient form as well used in 3rd persons (singular: -η, plural: -ησαν). More forms may be included in the conjugation tables for reference

Similar imperfect & past active:


imp aor[edit]

imperfect = aorist

augment η- for imperfect = aorist

stress shift imperfect = aorist


Notes on pronunciation of participles ending in:
-σμένος About [zm] pronunciation of the participle:

  • σμένος *[smenos] becomes [zmemnos]: apoklizmenos (αποκλεισμένος) because:
    RULE: σ [s] before voiced consonant (as [m] is) becomes voiced too: > [z]

-υσμένος About [vzm] pronunciation of the participle:

  • ευσμ *[fsm] becomes [vzm]: embnevzménos (εμπνευσμένος) because:
    RULE: σ [s] before voiced consonant (as [m] is) becomes voiced too: > [z]
    RULE: [f] (as in ευ..) before voiced consonant (as [z] is) becomes voiced too: > [v]

1st conjugation patterns[edit]

From the ROOT, we have 4 stems: of present, past active, past passive and passive perfect participle.
The character is the characteristic last consonant of the stem.
The sequence of the stems, their character bold:
ACTIVE: 1:of present, 2:of past - PASSIVE: repeated active present stem, 3:of passive past & 4:of passive perfect participle

    1: ορίζ-ω,   2: όρισ-α   -   ορίζ-ομαι,   3: ορίστ-ηκα   &   4: ορισ-μένος

In active past, a stress shift. If the verb is bisyllabic, the augment ε- is added (λύ-ν-ω, έ-λυ-σ-α) serving as an extra syllable for the shifted stress.


  • vowel ending, Labials: fo, fto, po, pto, ro, zo, vo1 with β, vo2 without comments on combinations.
  • ko,
  • xno


  • [ro] [∅-∅-rθ-∅] (Group 'φέρω') φέρω, έφερα - φέρομαι, φέρθηκα & φερμένος (with identical imperfect and past)
  • [ro] [∅-∅-2rθ/r-2∅] (Group 'φθείρω') φθείρω, έφθειρα - φθείρομαι, φθάρθηκα/φθάρηκα/εφθάρην & φθαρμένος (with identical imperfect and past & 2 passive past stem-grades)


[...s-θ-] ...ω, -σα, -θηκα, -μένος       (the sa-θe verbs)
  • [€o] [∅-s-θ-∅] (Group 'λύω') διαλύω, διέλυσα - διαλύομαι, διαλύθηκα & διαλυμένος
  • [no] [n-s-θ-∅] (Group:XXX) λύνω, έλυσα - λύνομαι, λύθηκα & λυμένος


[...s-θ-s] verbs -σα, -θηκα, -σμένος   (the sa-θe-sa verbs)


[...-s-st-s] verbs -σα, -στηκα, -σμένος   (the sa-ste-sa verbs)
  • [€o] [∅-s-st-s] (Group 'κλείω') αποκλείω απέκλεισα - αποκλείομαι, αποκλείστηκα & αποκλεισμένος
    irr: ακούω, άκουσα - ακούγομαι, ακούστηκα & ακουσμένος
  • [θo] [θ-s-st-s] (Group:XXX) πλάθω, έπλασα - πλάθομαι, πλάστηκα & πλασμένος
  • [no] [n-s-st-s] (Group:XXX) κλείνω, έκλεισα - κλείνομαι, κλείστηκα & κλεισμένος
  • [zo] [z-s-st-s] (Group '-άζω, ίζω') ορίζω, όρισα - ορίζομαι, ορίστηκα & ορισμένος


[...-fs--s] verbs -υσα, -υθηκα, -υμένος   (the fsa-fθe-va verbs)


[...-fs-fst-fs] verbs -υσα, -υσθηκα, -υσμένος   (the fsa-fste-fsa verbs)
  • [€o] [∅-fs-fst-fs] (Group 'πνέω') εμπνέω, ενέπνευσα - εμπνέομαι, εμπνεύστηκα/εμπνεύσθηκα & εμπνευσμένος


[...-ks-xt-γ] verbs -ξα, -χτηκα, -γμένος   (the ksa-xte-γa vebs)
  • [ko] [k-ks-xt(xθ)-γ] (Group 'πλέκω') πλέκω, έπλεξα - πλέκομαι, πλέχτηκα/-χθηκα & πλεγμένος
    • [ko] [k-ks-xθ(xt)/k-γ] (Group 'περιπλέκω') περιπλέκω, περιέπλεξα - περιπλέκομαι, περιπλέχθηκα/-χτηκα/περιεπλάκην & περιπλεγμένος, {περιπεπλεγμένος} (with 2 stem-grades πλεκ-, πλακ-)
  • [ɣo] [ɣ-ks-xt-ɣ] (Group 'τυλίγω') τυλίγω, τύλιξα - τυλίγομαι, τυλίχτηκα & τυλιγμένος
  • [xno] [xn-ks-xt-γ] (CAT 'ψάχνω') ψάχνω, έψαξα - ψάχνομαι, ψάχτηκα & ψαγμένος
  • [zo] [z-ks-xt(xθ)-γ] (Group 'αλλάζω') αλλάζω, άλλαξα - αλλάζομαι αλλάχτηκα/αλλάχθηκα & αλλαγμένος

[...-ks-xt-γ & ...-s-st-s] verbs -ξα/-σα, -χτηκα/-στηκα, -γμένος/-σμένος   (the ksa-xte-γa & sa-ste-sa vebs)
  • [zo] [z-ks/s-xt/st-γ/s] (Group 'αγγίζω') αγγίζω, άγγιξα/άγγισα - αγγίζομαι, αγγίχτηκα\αγγίστηκα & αγγιγμένος/αγγισμένος

[...-ks-ɣʝ-ɣ] verbs -ξα, -γηκα, -γμένος   (the ksa-ji-γa vebs)

[...-ks-st-s] verbs -ξα, -στηκα, -σμένος   (the ksa-ste-sa verbs)


[...-ps-ft-] verbs -ψα, -φτηκα, -μένος   (the psa-fte verbs)
  • [vo]2 [v-ps-ft-∅] (Group 'μαζεύω') μαζεύω, μάζεψα - μαζεύομαι, μαζεύτηκα & μαζεμένος     (& see Combinations of v2)


[...-ps-ft/-m] verbs -ψα, -φτηκα / -φθηκα, -μμένος   (the psa-fte-ma verbs)

ft (φτ) or the more formal fθ (φθ) (a matter of style and ancient origin of the verb)


[...-ps-f-m] verbs -ψα, -φηκα, -μμένος   (the psa-fe-ma verbs)

With 2 stem-grades at passive past

  • [fo] [f-ps-2f-2m] (Group 'στρέφω') στρέφω, έστρεψα - στρέφομαι, στράφηκα & στραμμένος  (with 2 stem-grades στρεφ- στραφ-)

Plus 2 stems at passive past

  • [vo]1 [v-ps-ft/2f-m] (Cat: irreg) θάβω, έθαψα - θάβομαι, θάφτηκα/τάφηκα & θαμμένος (1.Labials-irregular) passive past θαφτ-, ταφ-



[...-ps-p-m] verbs -ψα, -πηκα, -μμένος   (the psa-pe-ma verbs)
  • [pto] [pt-ps-p-m] (Group 'κόπτω') διακόπτω, διέκοψα - διακόπτομαι, διακόπηκα & {διακεκομμένος}
  • [vo]1 [v-ps-p-m] (Group 'κόβω) κόβω, έκοψα - κόβομαι, κόπηκα & κομμένος  &bnsp;(with [p] in passive past)

With 2 stem-grades at passive past

  • [po] [p-ps-2p-2m] (Group 'τρέπω') τρέπω, έτρεψα - τρέπομαι, τράπηκα/{ετράπην}, {-τετραμμένος}     (with 2 stem-grades: τρεπ-, τραπ-)
  • [pto] [pt-ps-2p-m] (Group 'κλέπτω') υποκλέπτω, υπέκλεψα - υποκλέπτομαι, υποκλάπηκα/{υπεκλάπην} & —     (with 2 stem-grades: κλεπ- κλαπ-)
  • [vo]1 [v-ps-φτ/2p-m] (CAT:irregular) κλέβω, έκλεψα - κλέβομαι, κλέφτηκα/κλάπηκα & κλεμμένος (Labials-irregular with 2 stem-grades: κλεφτ-, κλαπ-)


  • [vo]1 [v-ps-ft/fθ/v-m] (Group 'τρίβω') συντρίβω, σύντριψα/συνέτριψα - συντρίβομαι, συντρίφτηκα/συντρίφθηκα/συνετρίβην & συν{τε}τριμμένος    ; (plus v at passive past)

without s sound[edit]


[...n-θ-∅] ...νω, -να, -θηκα, -μένος       (the na-θe verbs)
  • [€no] (-αίνω) ...
  • [€no] (-ίνω) [n-n-θ-∅] (Group 'κρίνω') κρίνω, έκρινα - κρίνομαι, κρίθηκα & κριμένος

with 2 stems:

  • [€no] (-αίνω) [en-in-iθ-i∅] with upsilon: -αίνω, -υσα, -ύθηκα, -υμένος (αρταίνω)
  • [€no] (είνω) [in-in-aθ-i∅] (Group 'τείνω') προτείνω, πρότεινα - προτείνομαι, προτάθηκα & {προτεταμένος}   (with 2 stem-grades: τεν-j > τειν, τα-)


[...r-is] verbs (-ρω, -ρισα, -ρίστηκα, -ρισμένος   (the -άρω, ίρω verbs)


  • [ro] [∅-∅-θ-∅] (Group 'φέρω') φέρω, έφερα, φέρθηκα & φερμένος (with identical imperfect and past)


  1. ^ € for any vowel and $ for any consonant are NOT official symbols (V for Vowel and C for Consonant). They are used here, for convenience.
  2. ^ Note on the -νω verbs: the character n may be: 1. part of the stem. 2. a historical change of a stem into -νω ({πληρόω/πληρῶ} > πληρώνω). 2. an addition to an older stem (λύω > λύνω)
  3. ^ Jordanidou, Anna (2004) Τα ρήματα της νέας ελληνικής [Modern Greek Verbs], Athens: Patakis Publishers
  4. ^ -άω (-ώ, -άω)Λεξικό της κοινής νεοελληνικής [Dictionary of Standard Modern Greek], 1998, by the "Triantafyllidis" Foundation.
  5. ^ The list of irregulars, as in Holton's Comprehensive Grammar, 7.13 at and Babiniotis' Dictionary (lemma ρήμα).


  • The indispensable Jordanidou, Anna (2004) Τα ρήματα της νέας ελληνικής [Modern Greek Verbs], Athens: Patakis Publishers
  • Georgios Babiniotis (2002), “Sarri.greek/lab”, in Λεξικό της νέας ελληνικής γλώσσας: [] [Dictionary of the New Greek Language] (in Greek), 2nd edition, Athens: Kentro Lexikologias, →ISBN.
  • Holton, David; Mackridge, Peter; Philippaki-Warburton, Irene (1997) Greek: A Comprehensive Grammar of the Modern Language, London: Routledge

difficult to decide[edit]


επικράτεια|domain - el

βασίλειο|kingdom - part of speech: verbs, nouns, adjectives, etc.
συνομοταξία|phylum - noun genders / verb conjugations 1st, 2nd, irregular
ομοταξία|classis|class - nomina: parisyllabic imparisyllabic irreg / 1st.verbs ...ending stems (in vowel, consonants) 2nd.classes
τάξη|ordo|order - of nouns:stress shifts / verbs: labials, dentals p, v, f - t, δ, θ ...
οικογένεια|familia|family - of patterns? supergroups?
γένος|genus - group (Category:Greek verb conjugation group 'ωωω')
είδος|species - like... (Category:Greek verbs conjugating like 'ωωω' & unique)