Appendix:Greek verbs

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  • The subpages of this appendix are a work in progress and contain an arbitrary collection of the most common Greek verbs together with their chief inflected forms.
ΑΒΓΔΕΖΗΘΙΚΛΜΝΞΟΠΡΣΤΥΦΧΨΩ
UNDER CONSTRUCTION — 2019
 

Verb formation[edit]

Modern Greek verbs are inflected with respect to mood, voice, aspect, tense, number, and person. Most inflected forms may be created using the four stems shown in green below:

  • active present stem — πληρών-ω (same for passive present)
  • active past stem — πλήρωσ-α
  • passive past stem — πληρώθ-ηκα
  • passive perfect participle stem — πληρω-μένος

The change in ending allows personal pronouns to be omitted. However, they will be used when emphasis is required. Compare εγώ πληρώνω (I am paying) (and no one else) with the general statement πληρώνω (I pay).

Conjugations[edit]

The Modern Greek conjugations are derived from the Ancient 1st Conjugation (the 2nd "-μι, -μαι" no longer exists) and, apart from irregular verbs, these are two in number:

1st conjugation: paroxytone verbs ending in -ω, -…μαιλύνω, λύνομαι
2nd conjugation — oxytone verbs ending in -άω/ώ, -…μαι and falling into two classes:
Class 1: — αγαπάω/αγαπώ, αγαπιέμαι
Class 2: — θεωρώ, θεωρούμαι.

Voices[edit]

Two morphological voice-sets: -ω or -ώ, and -μαι. By convention they are called active and passive[1] although their meaning (disposition, or diathesis) may not be such. E.g. εργάζομαι (I work) has only passive forms, but active meaning.

Active forms: λύνω, αγαπάω/αγαπώ, θεωρώ
Passive forms: λύνομαι, αγαπιέμαι, θεωρούμαι

For more, see wikipedia Modern Greek Grammar - verbs and sources: Greek Grammars

Groups of verbs[edit]

Verbs are categorized by the ending of their stem and by the pattern of the stems for their conjugation.
Other groups of interest:

  • the number of syllables: bisyllabic (or disyllabic) verbs beginning with a consonant receive an augment  έ for their tenses of past (imperfect and simple past): (λύνω, έλυνα, έλυσα)[2]
  • Groups of compounds (λύω, επιλύω): When the second combining form receives an augment, the first combining form (usually a preposition) is affected if it ends with a vowel:
    Present: επι-λύω > επιλύω. Past: επι-έλυσα > επ-έλυσα > επέλυσα Internal augment: έ. The last vowel of the preposition is deleted, with few exceptions, like:
    Present: προ-βλέπω > προβλέπω. Past: προ-έβλεψα > προέβλεψα Internal augment: έ. The last vowel of the preposition may not be deleted.
    or Past: προ-έβλεψα > πρόβλεψα The augment itself is deleted.
    Present: συν-δέω > συνδέω. Past: συν-έδεσα > συνέδεσα Internal augment: έ retained.
    or Past: συν-έδεσα > σύνδεσα The augment deleted.
  • Ancient verbs which survive in Modern Greek have old, plus more modern forms. Such verbs are usually labelled as 'learned'. The etymological history of each verb affects the variety of its inflectional forms.
    Example: εκλέγω with multiple passive past forms.

For more, see Category:Greek verbs

Conjugation tables[edit]

Terms used as headings:

  • in English, and in Greek on mousover.
  • contemporary nomenclature, plus reference to traditional terminology (e.g. perfective imperative is aorist imperative)

Notes are added for specific forms and indications

  • for colloquial or optional forms in parenthesis (...)
  • for rare forms, in square brackets [...]
  • for learned forms which come from the ancient conjugation in braces {...}

Omitted[edit]

The modern Greek verb system has a striking variety of alternative forms.
General omissions from the tables are:

  • verb forms of previous centuries (Late Mediaeval or Early Modern up to 17th, 18th century)
  • dialectal elements διαλεκτικά στοιχεία regional or other
  • ultra-archaic forms can be found at the conjugation table of the corresponding ancient verb (as indicated at Etymology sections). But archaic forms used in stereotyped set phrases are included: λύσατε, εθεωρείτο, είμαι πεπεισμένος, άκουσον, διαίρει, etc.
  • explanations on the variety of meanings for each form (they are discussed at each form's separate page)

Specifically, omitted are:

  • the subjunctive να or ας + indicative mood is presented with a brief note (να λύνω - to keep untying, να λύσω - to untie, να έχω λύσει - to have untied).
  • The conditionals
    να/ας/θα + imperfect active (θα έλυνα - Ι would untie/solve)
    θα + pluperfect (θα είχα λύσει - I would have untied/solved)
    and with passive imperfect (θα λυνόμουνα - I would be untied/solved)
    with passive pluperfect (θα είχα λυθεί - Ι would have been untied/solved)
  • the active perfect imperative
    singular έχε + accusative of passive perfect participle (έχε λυμέν... - have him/her/it untied/solved)
    plural έχετε + accusative of passive perfect participle (έχετε λυμέν... - have him/her/it untied/solved)
  • ε- unstressed syllabic augment άτονη συλλαβική αύξηση at imperfect & simple past. It is ancient, and has been in use in texts up to the 20th century, rarely in the 21st century.
    • δηλώνω / δήλωνα (standard) - εδήλωνα (dated or colloquial) / δήλωνες - εδήλωνες / δήλωνε - εδήλωνε / δηλώναμε / δηλώνατε / δήλωναν - εδήλωναν δηλώναν(ε)
    • δήλωσα - εδήλωσα / δήλωσες - εδήλωσες / δήλωσε - εδήλωσε / δηλώσαμε / δηλώσατε / δήλωσαν - εδήλωσαν δηλώσαν(ε)
    • δηλώθηκα - εδηλώθηκα, ... etc
  • -ουμαι -ουνται (vernacular) 1st singular & 3rd plural passive present (λύνουμαι, λύνουνται instead of λύνομαι, λύνονται)
  • -όντανε (vernacular) 3rd plural passive imperfect (λυνόντανε instead of λύνονταν or λυνόντουσαν)
  • -όσαντε (dialectal/regional) 3rd plural passive imperfect (λυνόσαντε instead of λύνονταν or λυνόντουσαν)
  • -ονταν as 3rd singular passive imperfect, coinciding with 3rd plural (λύνονταν instead of λυνόταν)
  • -ουνταν (idiomatic) as 3rd singular and plural passive imperfect (λύνουνταν instead of λυνόταν and of λύνονταν)
  • -ουσι as 3rd plural active present (λύουσι instead of λύνουν). It is ancient, but also modern-dialectal. It occurs in many older texts of the New Times.
  • -ετε plural imperative active perfective (aorist) for verbs with Active-Aorist-Stem ending in λ, ρ, σ, ξ, ψ (λύσετε, παίξετε instead of λύστε, παίξτε) Of course, they can be used when subjunctive is used in the place of imperative: να λύσετε, να παίξετε.
  • -ατε plural imperative active perfective (aorist) in ancient fashion: (λύσατε, modern: λύστε)
  • -ου the rare archaic passive imperfective imperative (passive present imperative) (λύνου - ancient λύου).
  • the alternative active perfect participle: έχοντας +accusative of pefect participle (έχοντας λυμένο).
  • all verb forms variated with deletion of their first vowel: it occurs optionally after articles, vowel-ending weak pronouns, after θα (in future tense), after να (in subjunctive), after πού. An apostrophe takes the place of the deleted vowel. The stress, invisible, moves to the preceding word:
    το 'δα /ˈtoða/ (το είδα /to ˈiða/) - I saw it
    μου 'ρχεται /ˈmurçete/ (μου έρχεται /mu ˈerçete/) - it's coming to me
    θα 'χω /ˈθaxo/ (θα έχω /θa ˈexo/) - I will have
    να 'μαστε /ˈnamaste/ (να είμαστε /na ˈimaste/) - for us to be, here we are
    πού 'σουνα; /ˈpusuna/? (πού ήσουνα; /ˈpu ˈisuna/?) - where were you? Here, 'πού' had a stress on its own right.
    The vowels' strength from strong to weak are: [a] - [o] - [u] - [e] - [i]. If the vowel of the verb is stronger, it remains:
    τ' άλλαξα /ˈtalaksa/ (το άλλαξα /to ˈalaksa/ - I changed it)

1st conjugation[edit]

With endings -ω, -...μαι (λύνω, λύνομαι)

Vowel ending stems[edit]

Consonant ending stems[edit]

The [r] verbs -ρω, -ρομαι

The [z] verbs -ζω, -ζομαι

Sources[edit]

  • major Grammars or Verb Dictionaries for Modern Greek:
    • English: Holton[3]
    • Greek: Iordanidou[4], Klairis-Babiniotis[5]
    • Greek: the current (2018) official[6][7] school-grammars issued by the Greek Ministry of Education
  • for the frequency of varied forms: online thesauri of Greek coropora and the internet.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Active-passive: terms used in official Greek school grammars. Other sources use the term mediopassive instead of passive. The middle sets of forms for middle disposition or diathesis exist only in Ancient Greek future and aorist (past) tenses.
  2. ^ There are some exceptions like θέλω-ήθελα, ξέρω-ήξερα, πίνω-έπινα, ήπια
  3. ^ Holton, David. Mackridge, Peter. Philippaki-Warburton, Irene. Spyropoulos, Vassilios. Greek: A Comprehensive Grammar of the Modern Language. ed.2. (in English) Routledge, 2012.
  4. ^ Iordanidou, Anna. Τα Ρήματα της Νέας Ελληνικής. [The Verbs of Modern Greek] 8th ed. (in Greek) Athens: Patakis, 1998. (written in 1991, 1st ed:1992)
  5. ^ Klairis, Christos. Babiniotis, Georgios. Γραμματική της Νέας Ελληνικής. ΙΙ. To Ρήμα της Νέας Ελληνικής, [Grammar of Modern Greek. II. The Modern Greek Verb] (in Greek) Athens: Hellenica Grammata, 1999.
  6. ^ Hatzisavvidis, Sofronis & Hatzisavvidou, Athanasia. (n.d.) Γραμματική Νέας Ελληνικής Γλώσσας. Α' Β' Γ' Γυμνασίου. [Grammar of Modern Greek Language. A B C Gymnasium (Secondary School)] (in Greek) Athens: Institute for Publishing Educational Books \by the Ministry of Education of Greece\, n.d. online@ebooks.edu.gr retr:2017.11.02.
  7. ^ Philippaki-Warburton, Irene, et al. (n.d.) Γραμματική Ε' και ΣΤ' Δημοτικού. [Grammar 5th and 6th classes of Demoticon (Primary School)] Athens: Institute for Educational Books Publishing \by the Ministry of Education of Greece\, n.d. online@ebooks.edu.gr retr:2017.11.02.