δέω

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Ancient Greek[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

 

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Indo-European *deh₁-. Cognates include Sanskrit द्यति ‎(dyati), Avestan 𐬥𐬍𐬛𐬫𐬁𐬙𐬄𐬨 ‎(nīdyātąm) and Albanian duaj.

Alternative forms[edit]

Verb[edit]

δέω ‎(déō)

  1. I bind, tie, fasten, fetter
    • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 10.443
      ἠέ με δήσαντες λίπετ᾽ αὐτόθι νηλέϊ δεσμῷ
      or bind me with a cruel bond and leave me here
    • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 10.475
      ὠκέες ἵπποι ἐξ ἐπιδιφριάδος πυμάτης ἱμᾶσι δέδεντο
      his swift horses were tethered by the reins to the topmost rim of the chariot
    1. (figuratively)
      • 522 BCE – 443 BCE, Pindar, Pythian Ode 3.54
        ἀλλὰ κέρδει καὶ σοφία δέδεται.
        But even skill is enthralled by the love of gain.
    2. (middle voice) I tie onto myself
      • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 2.44
        ποσσὶ δ᾽ ὑπὸ λιπαροῖσιν ἐδήσατο καλὰ πέδιλα
        and beneath his shining feet he bound his fair sandals
    3. (with genitive) I hinder from
      • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Odyssey 4.380
        λλὰ σύ πέρ μοι εἰπέ [...] ὅς τίς μ᾽ ἀθανάτων πεδάᾳ καὶ ἔδησε κελεύθου
        But do thou tell me [...] who of the immortals fetters me here, and has hindered me from my path
    4. (medicine) I brace
Inflection[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]
Antonyms[edit]
References[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Uncertain. Either from Proto-Hellenic *dew- or Proto-Indo-European *dews-. If the latter, then cognate with Sanskrit दोष ‎(doṣa).

Alternative forms[edit]

Verb[edit]

δέω ‎(déō)

  1. To lack, need, require [+genitive = something, someone]
    • 428 BCE – 347 BCE, Plato, Stat. 277.d
      αὖ μοι καὶ τὸ παράδειγμα αὐτὸ δεδέηκεν.
      The very example I employ requires another example.
    1. with πολλοῦ ‎(polloû) To be far from being able to do [+infinitive = something]
      • 400 BCE – 387 BCE, Plato, Apology 30.d
        πολλοῦ δέω ἐγὼ ὑπὲρ ἐμαυτοῦ ἀπολογεῖσθαι
        I am far from giving a defense for myself
    2. participle δέων ‎(déōn)
      1. modifying a noun, with genitive of the number by which something is less than another thing: lacking a number: a number less than something, something minus a number; often used to express numbers ending in 8 or 9
        • 460 BCE – 420 BCE, Herodotus, Histories 1.14.1
          δυῶν δέοντα τεσσεράκοντα ἔτεα
          thirty minus two years; two less than thirty years [= 38 years]
      2. with both the participle and the number in the genitive: genitive absolute: with a number lacking, a number less than
        • 3rd century AD, Diogenes Laertius, 5 27
          πόλεων δυοῖν δεούσαιν ἑξήκοντα
          sixty cities with two lacking or two less than sixty [= 58 cities]
  2. (middle voice, never impersonal, transitive) To lack, not have, or need [+genitive = something]
    • 429 BCE, Sophocles, Oedipus the King 1148
      ἐπεὶ τὰ σὰ δεῖται κολαστοῦ μᾶλλον ἢ τὰ τοῦδ᾽ ἔπη.
      Your words need rebuking more than his.
    1. (intransitive) to need [+infinitive = to do something]
      • 380 BCE, Plato, The Republic 392.d
        ἔτι δέομαι σαφέστερον μαθεῖν
        I still need to understand more plainly.
    2. (intransitive) To be in need
      οἱ δεόμενοι
      hoi deómenoi
      the needy
    3. (transitive) To beg [+two genitives = something from someone]; [+genitive and infinitive = someone to do something]
      • 460 BCE – 420 BCE, Herodotus, Histories 3.157.1
        ἐπιτρέπεσθαι ἕτοιμοι ἦσαν τῶν ἐδέετο σφέων
        they were ready to entrust to him all that he asked from them
Usage notes[edit]

The third person and non-finite forms are also used impersonally: see δεῖ ‎(deî).

Other forms: δεοῦμαι ‎(deoûmai) for δεήσομαι ‎(deḗsomai) (Doric, Epich.120).

Inflection[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Verb[edit]

δέω ‎(déō)

  1. Alternative form of δήω ‎(dḗō)