γράφω

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Ancient Greek[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Hellenic *grəpʰō, from Proto-Indo-European *gerbʰ-. Cognates include Old English ċeorfan (English carve), Old Church Slavonic жрѣбъ (žrěbŭ).

Pronunciation[edit]

 

Verb[edit]

γρᾰ́φω (gráphō)

  1. (Epic) to scratch, cut into
    • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 17.599
      γράψεν δέ οἱ ὀστέον ἄχρις / αἰχμὴ Πουλυδάμαντος []
      grápsen dé hoi ostéon ákhris / aikhmḕ Pouludámantos []
      and the spearpoint of Polydamas scratched him close to the bone []
  2. to draw, sketch, paint
  3. to write
  4. to write down, propose a law
    • 430 BCE – 354 BCE, Xenophon, Hellenica 1.7.34
      ταῦτ᾽ εἰπὼν Εὐρυπτόλεμος ἔγραψε γνώμην κατὰ τὸ Καννωνοῦ ψήφισμα κρίνεσθαι τοὺς ἄνδρας δίχα ἕκαστον.
      taût᾽ eipṑn Euruptólemos égrapse gnṓmēn katà tò Kannōnoû psḗphisma krínesthai toùs ándras díkha hékaston.
      After saying this, Euryptolemus proposed a resolution that the men be tried under the decree of Cannonus, each one separately.
  5. (middle)
    1. (indirect reflexive) write down for oneself, note down
      • 366 BCE – 348 BCE, Plato, Theaetetus 143a
        Τερψίων   ἀτὰρ τίνες ἦσαν οἱ λόγοι; ἔχοις ἂν διηγήσασθαι;
        Εὐκλείδης   οὐ μὰ τὸν Δία, [] ἀλλ᾽ ἐγραψάμην μὲν τότ᾽ εὐθὺς οἴκαδ᾽ ἐλθὼν ὑπομνήματα [] .
        Terpsíōn   atàr tínes êsan hoi lógoi? ékhois àn diēgḗsasthai?
        Eukleídēs   ou mà tòn Día, [] all᾽ egrapsámēn mèn tót᾽ euthùs oíkad᾽ elthṑn hupomnḗmata [] .
        Terpsion: But what was the talk? Can you repeat it?
        Eucleides: No, by Zeus, but I wrote myself notes as soon as I came home.
    2. to indict, prosecute
      • 330 BCE, Demosthenes, On the Crown 13
        δεῖ [] ταῖς ἐκ τῶν νόμων τιμωρίαις παρ᾽ αὐτὰ τἀδικήματα χρῆσθαι, [] εἰ δὲ γράφοντα παράνομα, παρανόμων γραφόμενον
        deî [] taîs ek tôn nómōn timōríais par᾽ autà tadikḗmata khrêsthai, [] ei dè gráphonta paránoma, paranómōn graphómenon
        he must make use of the legal punishments for these crimes: [] if [I] proposed illegal measures, to indict [me] for breaking the law
      • οἱ γραψάμενοι
        hoi grapsámenoi
        the prosecutors
  6. (perfect passive) be written down, be in written form
    • 366 BCE – 348 BCE, Plato, Theaetetus 143a
      Εὐκλείδης   [] ὥστε μοι σχεδόν τι πᾶς ὁ λόγος γέγραπται.
      Eukleídēs   [] hṓste moi skhedón ti pâs ho lógos gégraptai.
      Eucleides:   [] So I have pretty much the whole conversation written down.

Conjugation[edit]

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Greek[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Ancient Greek γράφω (gráphō).

Verb[edit]

γράφω (gráfo) (simple past έγραψα, passive form γράφομαι)

  1. write, pen
  2. record
  3. ticket (for a violation of a local or traffic law)

Conjugation[edit]

Related terms[edit]