γράφω

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Ancient Greek[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Hellenic *grəpʰō, from Proto-Indo-European *gerbʰ-. Cognates include Old English ċeorfan (English carve), Old Church Slavonic жрѣбъ (žrěbŭ).

Pronunciation[edit]

 

Verb[edit]

γρᾰ́φω (gráphō)

  1. (Epic) to scratch, cut into
    • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 17.599
      γράψεν δέ οἱ ὀστέον ἄχρις / αἰχμὴ Πουλυδάμαντος []
      grápsen dé hoi ostéon ákhris / aikhmḕ Pouludámantos []
      and the spearpoint of Polydamas scratched him close to the bone []
  2. to draw, sketch, paint
  3. to write
  4. to write down, propose a law
    • 430 BCE – 354 BCE, Xenophon, Hellenica 1.7.34
      ταῦτ᾽ εἰπὼν Εὐρυπτόλεμος ἔγραψε γνώμην κατὰ τὸ Καννωνοῦ ψήφισμα κρίνεσθαι τοὺς ἄνδρας δίχα ἕκαστον.
      taût eipṑn Euruptólemos égrapse gnṓmēn katà tò Kannōnoû psḗphisma krínesthai toùs ándras díkha hékaston.
      After saying this, Euryptolemus proposed a resolution that the men be tried under the decree of Cannonus, each one separately.
  5. (middle)
    1. (indirect reflexive) write down for oneself, note down
      • 366 BCE – 348 BCE, Plato, Theaetetus 143a
        Τερψίων   ἀτὰρ τίνες ἦσαν οἱ λόγοι; ἔχοις ἂν διηγήσασθαι;
        Εὐκλείδης   οὐ μὰ τὸν Δία, [] ἀλλ᾽ ἐγραψάμην μὲν τότ᾽ εὐθὺς οἴκαδ᾽ ἐλθὼν ὑπομνήματα [] .
        Terpsíōn   atàr tínes êsan hoi lógoi; ékhois àn diēgḗsasthai;
        Eukleídēs   ou mà tòn Día, [] all egrapsámēn mèn tót euthùs oíkad elthṑn hupomnḗmata [] .
        Terpsion: But what was the talk? Can you repeat it?
        Eucleides: No, by Zeus, but I wrote myself notes as soon as I came home.
    2. to indict, prosecute
      • 330 BCE, Demosthenes, On the Crown 13
        δεῖ [] ταῖς ἐκ τῶν νόμων τιμωρίαις παρ᾽ αὐτὰ τἀδικήματα χρῆσθαι, [] εἰ δὲ γράφοντα παράνομα, παρανόμων γραφόμενον
        deî [] taîs ek tôn nómōn timōríais par autà tadikḗmata khrêsthai, [] ei dè gráphonta paránoma, paranómōn graphómenon
        he must make use of the legal punishments for these crimes: [] if [I] proposed illegal measures, to indict [me] for breaking the law
      • οἱ γραψάμενοι
        hoi grapsámenoi
        the prosecutors
  6. (perfect passive) be written down, be in written form
    • 366 BCE – 348 BCE, Plato, Theaetetus 143a
      Εὐκλείδης   [] ὥστε μοι σχεδόν τι πᾶς ὁ λόγος γέγραπται.
      Eukleídēs   [] hṓste moi skhedón ti pâs ho lógos gégraptai.
      Eucleides:   [] So I have pretty much the whole conversation written down.

Conjugation[edit]

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Greek[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Ancient Greek γράφω (gráphō).

Verb[edit]

γράφω (gráfo) (simple past έγραψα, passive form γράφομαι)

  1. write, pen
  2. record
  3. ticket (for a violation of a local or traffic law)

Conjugation[edit]

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