γράφω

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Ancient Greek[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Indo-European *gr̥bʰ-, zero-grade of *gerbʰ-. Cognates include Old English ċeorfan (English carve), Old Church Slavonic жрѣбъ ‎(žrěbŭ).

Pronunciation[edit]

 

Verb[edit]

γρᾰ́φω ‎(gráphō)

  1. (Epic) to scratch, cut into
    • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 17.599
      γράψεν δέ οἱ ὀστέον ἄχρις / αἰχμὴ Πουλυδάμαντος ...
      and the spearpoint of Polydamas scratched him close to the bone ...
  2. to draw, sketch, paint
  3. to write
  4. to write down, propose a law
    • 430 BCE – 354 BCE, Xenophon, Hellenica 1.7.34
      ταῦτ᾽ εἰπὼν Εὐρυπτόλεμος ἔγραψε γνώμην κατὰ τὸ Καννωνοῦ ψήφισμα κρίνεσθαι τοὺς ἄνδρας δίχα ἕκαστον.
      After saying this, Euryptolemus proposed a resolution that the men be tried under the decree of Cannonus, each one separately.
  5. (middle voice)
    1. (indirect reflexive) write down for oneself, note down
      • 366 BCE – 348 BCE, Plato, Theaetetus 143.a
        Τερψίων   ἀτὰρ τίνες ἦσαν οἱ λόγοι; ἔχοις ἂν διηγήσασθαι;
        Εὐκλείδης   οὐ μὰ τὸν Δία, ... ἀλλ᾽ ἐγραψάμην μὲν τότ᾽ εὐθὺς οἴκαδ᾽ ἐλθὼν ὑπομνήματα ... .
        Terpsion: But what was the talk? Can you repeat it?
        Eucleides: No, by Zeus, but I wrote myself notes as soon as I came home.
    2. to indict, prosecute
      • 330 BCE, Demosthenes, On the Crown 13
        δεῖ ... ταῖς ἐκ τῶν νόμων τιμωρίαις παρ᾽ αὐτὰ τἀδικήματα χρῆσθαι, ... εἰ δὲ γράφοντα παράνομα, παρανόμων γραφόμενον
        he must make use of the legal punishments for these crimes: ... if [I] proposed illegal measures, to indict [me] for breaking the law
      • οἱ γραψάμενοι
        hoi grapsámenoi
        the prosecutors
  6. (perfect passive) be written down, be in written form
    • 366 BCE – 348 BCE, Plato, Theaetetus 143.a
      Εὐκλείδης   ... ὥστε μοι σχεδόν τι πᾶς ὁ λόγος γέγραπται.
      Eucleides:   ... So I have pretty much the whole conversation written down.

Conjugation[edit]

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Greek[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Ancient Greek γράφω ‎(gráphō).

Verb[edit]

γράφω ‎(gráfo) ‎(simple past έγραψα, passive form γράφομαι)

  1. write, pen
  2. record

Conjugation[edit]

Related terms[edit]