γράφω

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Ancient Greek[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Hellenic *grəpʰō, from Proto-Indo-European *gerbʰ-. Cognates include Old English ċeorfan (English carve), Old Church Slavonic жрѣбъ (žrěbŭ).

Pronunciation[edit]

 
  • (5th BCE Attic) IPA(key): /ɡrá.pʰɔː/
  • (1st CE Egyptian) IPA(key): /ˈɡra.pʰo/
  • (4th CE Koine) IPA(key): /ˈɣra.ɸo/
  • (10th CE Byzantine) IPA(key): /ˈɣra.fo/
  • (15th CE Constantinopolitan) IPA(key): /ˈɣra.fo/
  • Verb[edit]

    γρᾰ́φω (gráphō)

    1. (Epic) to scratch, cut into
      • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 17.599
        γράψεν δέ οἱ ὀστέον ἄχρις / αἰχμὴ Πουλυδάμαντος []
        grápsen dé hoi ostéon ákhris / aikhmḕ Pouludámantos []
        and the spearpoint of Polydamas scratched him close to the bone []
    2. to draw, sketch, paint
    3. to write
    4. to write down, propose a law
      • 430 BCE – 354 BCE, Xenophon, Hellenica 1.7.34
        ταῦτ᾽ εἰπὼν Εὐρυπτόλεμος ἔγραψε γνώμην κατὰ τὸ Καννωνοῦ ψήφισμα κρίνεσθαι τοὺς ἄνδρας δίχα ἕκαστον.
        taût᾽ eipṑn Euruptólemos égrapse gnṓmēn katà tò Kannōnoû psḗphisma krínesthai toùs ándras díkha hékaston.
        After saying this, Euryptolemus proposed a resolution that the men be tried under the decree of Cannonus, each one separately.
    5. (middle)
      1. (indirect reflexive) write down for oneself, note down
        • 366 BCE – 348 BCE, Plato, Theaetetus 143a
          Τερψίων   ἀτὰρ τίνες ἦσαν οἱ λόγοι; ἔχοις ἂν διηγήσασθαι;
          Εὐκλείδης   οὐ μὰ τὸν Δία, [] ἀλλ᾽ ἐγραψάμην μὲν τότ᾽ εὐθὺς οἴκαδ᾽ ἐλθὼν ὑπομνήματα [] .
          Terpsíōn   atàr tínes êsan hoi lógoi? ékhois àn diēgḗsasthai?
          Eukleídēs   ou mà tòn Día, [] all᾽ egrapsámēn mèn tót᾽ euthùs oíkad᾽ elthṑn hupomnḗmata [] .
          Terpsion: But what was the talk? Can you repeat it?
          Eucleides: No, by Zeus, but I wrote myself notes as soon as I came home.
      2. to indict, prosecute
        • 330 BCE, Demosthenes, On the Crown 13
          δεῖ [] ταῖς ἐκ τῶν νόμων τιμωρίαις παρ᾽ αὐτὰ τἀδικήματα χρῆσθαι, [] εἰ δὲ γράφοντα παράνομα, παρανόμων γραφόμενον
          deî [] taîs ek tôn nómōn timōríais par᾽ autà tadikḗmata khrêsthai, [] ei dè gráphonta paránoma, paranómōn graphómenon
          he must make use of the legal punishments for these crimes: [] if [I] proposed illegal measures, to indict [me] for breaking the law
        • οἱ γραψάμενοι
          hoi grapsámenoi
          the prosecutors
    6. (perfect passive) be written down, be in written form
      • 366 BCE – 348 BCE, Plato, Theaetetus 143a
        Εὐκλείδης   [] ὥστε μοι σχεδόν τι πᾶς ὁ λόγος γέγραπται.
        Eukleídēs   [] hṓste moi skhedón ti pâs ho lógos gégraptai.
        Eucleides:   [] So I have pretty much the whole conversation written down.

    Conjugation[edit]

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    Greek[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Ancient Greek γράφω (gráphō).

    Verb[edit]

    γράφω (gráfo) (simple past έγραψα, passive γράφομαι)

    1. write, pen
    2. record
    3. ticket (for a violation of a local or traffic law)

    Conjugation[edit]

    Related terms[edit]