cruciatus

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Latin[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Perfect passive participle of cruciō.

Participle[edit]

cruciātus m (feminine cruciāta, neuter cruciātum); first/second declension

  1. crucified
  2. tortured

Adjective[edit]

cruciatus (feminine cruciata, neuter cruciatum); first/second declension

  1. marked by a cross [from 12th century]

Inflection[edit]

First/second declension.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
nominative cruciātus cruciāta cruciātum cruciātī cruciātae cruciāta
genitive cruciātī cruciātae cruciātī cruciātōrum cruciātārum cruciātōrum
dative cruciātō cruciātō cruciātīs
accusative cruciātum cruciātam cruciātum cruciātōs cruciātās cruciāta
ablative cruciātō cruciātā cruciātō cruciātīs
vocative cruciāte cruciāta cruciātum cruciātī cruciātae cruciāta

Noun[edit]

cruciātus m (genitive cruciātūs); fourth declension

  1. torture (or the instruments of torture)
  2. torment, suffering
  3. ruin, calamity, misfortune
  4. a crusader [from 13th century]

Inflection[edit]

Fourth declension.

Case Singular Plural
nominative cruciātus cruciātūs
genitive cruciātūs cruciātuum
dative cruciātuī cruciātibus
accusative cruciātum cruciātūs
ablative cruciātū cruciātibus
vocative cruciātus cruciātūs

Usage notes[edit]

The adjective cruciatus had been used in the sense of "marked with a cross" from the 12th century; as a noun, cruciatus (often spelled with x in Middle Latin, cruxatus, croxatus, etc., also crucesignatus) was used of crusaders by the mid 13th century, from their practice of attaching a cloth cross symbol to their clothing.

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • cruciatus in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • cruciatus in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • cruciatus” in Félix Gaffiot’s Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Hachette (1934)
  • cruciatus in Ramminger, Johann (accessed 16 July 2016) Neulateinische Wortliste: Ein Wörterbuch des Lateinischen von Petrarca bis 1700[1], pre-publication website, 2005-2016
  • Mittellateinisches Wörterbuch vol. 2 (1999), s.v. "cruciatus"
  • Charles du Fresne, sieur du Cange, Glossarium mediae et infimae latinitatis, éd. augm., Niort : L. Favre, 1883‑1887, t. 2, col. 629a, s.v. "Cruciatæ"