deviņi

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Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From a previous undeclinable Eastern Baltic *dewin-, from Proto-Baltic *newin- (changed by analogy with septiņi, astoņi, from Proto-Baltic *aštō-), from Proto-Indo-European *h₁néwn̥, *néwn̥ (nine), probably from the same stem as *néwos- (new): apparently Proto-Indo-European had a base 4 numeric system, so that, after two 4's (= 8), 9 was the first (“new”) to be part of a complex numeral (compare Ossetian фараст (farast, nine) = фар (far, over) + аст (ast, eight)). The initial d in Eastern Baltic and Slavic is usually explained as dissimilation, given the two n's in *newin-, probably also under the influence of the initial d in desmit. A more recent suggestion is that Proto-Indo-European *néwn̥ < *h₁néwn̥, in which the h₁n sequence would yield an articulation similar to a d. This would have led to dialectal variation (*néwn, *déwn), with both forms preserved in parallel, the former giving rise to the Eastern Baltic terms, the latter to their Old Prussian counterpart. Cognates include Lithuanian devynì, Old Prussian newints (ninth), Old Church Slavonic дєвѧть (devętĭ), Russian, Ukrainian де́вять (dévjatʹ), Belarusian дзе́вяць (dzjévjacʹ), Bulgarian де́вет (dévet), Czech devět, Polish dziewięć, Gothic, Old High German 𐌽𐌹𐌿𐌽 (niun), German neun, English nine, Sanskrit नवन् (návan), Ancient Greek ἐννέα (ennéa) (< *en néwa), Latin novem, Tocharian A, Tocharian B ñu.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Latvian cardinal numbers
 <  8 9 10  > 
    Cardinal : deviņi
    Ordinal : devītais
    Multiplier : deviņreiz
    Nominal : deviņnieks
    Fractional : devītdaļa
Latvian Wikipedia article on deviņi
(file)

Numeral[edit]

deviņi

  1. nine (the cipher, the cardinal number nine)
    skaitīt līdz deviņi — to count to nine
    četri un pieci ir deviņi — four plus five is nine
    trīsreiz trīs ir deviņi — three times three is nine
    uzrakstīt ciparu deviņi — to write the number nine
    no deviņiem atņemt četrus — to subtract four from nine
  2. nine (an amount equal to nine)
    samaksāt deviņus latus — to pay nine lats
    deviņi kilograminine kilos
    deviņas grāmatasnine books
  3. nine o'clock (a moment in time; nine hours after midnight, or after noon)
    pulkstenis ir deviņi — it is nine o'clock
    darbs sākas deviņos — work begins at nine o'clock
    seanss sākas deviņos vakarā — the seance begins at nine o'clock in the evening
    viņš gaidīja līdz deviņiem — he waited until nine o'clock

Declension[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “deviņi” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7