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From a previous undeclinable *aštuo- (changed by analogy with septiņi, deviņi), from Proto-Baltic *aštō-, from Proto-Indo-European *oḱtṓw, *oḱtṓ- ‎(eight), apparently from *aḱ- ‎(sharp, pointed, angular) (compare ass ‎(sharp)): this number was associated with the stretched fingers of both hands (without the thumb), i.e., 8 tips, points. There is some evidence that the original meaning of this word was 4 rather than 8, i.e., 4 stretched fingers of one hand (without the thumb). Cognates include Lithuanian aštuonì, Old Prussian asmus ‎(eighth), Old Church Slavonic осмь ‎(osmĭ), Russian во́семь ‎(vósemʹ), Belarusian во́сем ‎(vósjem), Ukrainian ві́сім ‎(vísim), Bulgarian о́съм ‎(ósǎm), Czech osm, Polish ośm, Gothic 𐌰𐌷𐍄𐌰𐌿 ‎(ahtau), Old High German ahto, German acht, English eight, Scythian ašta, Sanskrit अष्ट ‎(aṣṭá), Ancient Greek ὀκτώ ‎(oktṓ), Latin octo.[1]


Latvian cardinal numbers
 <  7 8 9  > 
    Cardinal : astoņi
    Ordinal : astotais
    Multiplier : astoņreiz
    Nominal : astoņnieks
    Fractional : astotdaļa
Latvian Wikipedia article on astoņi



  1. eight (the cipher, the cardinal number eight)
    skaitīt līdz astoņi — to count to eight
    četri un četri ir astoņi — four plus four is eight
    uzrakstīt uz tāfeles astoņi — to write an eight on the blackboard
    pie pieciem pielikt astoņus — to add eight to four
  2. eight (an amount equal to eight)
    astoņi cilvēkieight people
    sastapties pēc astoņiem gadiem — to meet (someone) after eight years
    samaksāt astoņus latus — to pay eight lats
    astoņus gadus veca meitene — an eight-year old girl
  3. eight o'clock (a moment in time; eight hours after midnight, or after noon)
    pulkstenis ir astoņi — it is eight o'clock
    celties astoņos no rīta — to get up at eight o'clock in the morning
    izrāde sākas astoņos vakarā — the show begins at eight o'clock in the evening
    bibliotēka bija atvērta līdz astoņiem vakarā — the library was open until eight o'clock in the evening


See also[edit]

Coordinate terms[edit]


  1. ^ “astoņi” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7