astoņi

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Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From a previous undeclinable *aštuo- (changed by analogy with septiņi, deviņi), from Proto-Baltic *aštō-, from Proto-Indo-European *oḱtṓw, *oḱtṓ- (eight), apparently from *aḱ- (sharp, pointed, angular) (compare ass (sharp)): this number was associated with the stretched fingers of both hands (without the thumb), i.e., 8 tips, points. There is some evidence that the original meaning of this word was 4 rather than 8, i.e., 4 stretched fingers of one hand (without the thumb). Cognates include Lithuanian aštuonì, Old Prussian asmus (eighth), Old Church Slavonic осмь (osmĭ), Russian во́семь (vósemʹ), Belarusian во́сем (vósjem), Ukrainian ві́сім (vísim), Bulgarian о́съм (ósǎm), Czech osm, Polish ośm, Gothic 𐌰𐌷𐍄𐌰𐌿 (ahtau), Old High German ahto, German acht, English eight, Scythian ašta, Sanskrit अष्ट (aṣṭá), Ancient Greek ὀκτώ (oktṓ), Latin octo.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Latvian cardinal numbers
 <  7 8 9  > 
    Cardinal : astoņi
    Ordinal : astotais
    Multiplier : astoņreiz
    Nominal : astoņnieks
    Fractional : astotdaļa
Latvian Wikipedia article on astoņi
(file)

Numeral[edit]

astoņi

  1. eight (the cipher, the cardinal number eight)
    skaitīt līdz astoņi‎ ― to count to eight
    četri un četri ir astoņi‎ ― four plus four is eight
    uzrakstīt uz tāfeles astoņi‎ ― to write an eight on the blackboard
    pie pieciem pielikt astoņus‎ ― to add eight to four
  2. eight (an amount equal to eight)
    astoņi cilvēki‎ ― eight people
    sastapties pēc astoņiem gadiem‎ ― to meet (someone) after eight years
    samaksāt astoņus latus — to pay eight lats
    astoņus gadus veca meitene‎ ― an eight-year old girl
  3. eight o'clock (a moment in time; eight hours after midnight, or after noon)
    pulkstenis ir astoņi‎ ― it is eight o'clock
    celties astoņos no rīta‎ ― to get up at eight o'clock in the morning
    izrāde sākas astoņos vakarā‎ ― the show begins at eight o'clock in the evening
    bibliotēka bija atvērta līdz astoņiem vakarā‎ ― the library was open until eight o'clock in the evening

Declension[edit]

See also[edit]

Coordinate terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “astoņi”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7