desmit

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Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From the noun desmits ‎(group of ten), from *desimtis by metathesis, from Proto-Baltic *dešimtis, from Proto-Indo-European *déḱm̥t ‎(ten) with a suffix -(t)i-s marking collective number (“group of ten”). The Proto-Indo-European form is itself complex, including an element *ḱm̥t, possibly from *ḱomt ‎(hand) (> German Hand, Dutch, English hand), in which case *de-ḱm̥t would mean originally “two hands.” Cognates include Lithuanian dẽšimt, Old Prussian dessimpts, Old Church Slavonic дєсѧть ‎(desętĭ), Russian, Ukrainian де́сять ‎(désjatʹ), Belarusian дзе́сяць ‎(dzjésjacʹ), Bulgarian де́сет ‎(déset), Czech deset, Polish dziesięć, Gothic 𐍄𐌰𐌹𐌷𐌿𐌽 ‎(taihun), Old Norse tiund, Old High German zëhan, German zehn, English ten, Sanskrit दश ‎(dáśa), Ancient Greek δέκα ‎(déka), Latin decem.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Latvian cardinal numbers
 <  9 10 11  > 
    Cardinal : desmit
    Ordinal : desmitais
    Multiplier : desmitreiz
    Nominal : desmitnieks
    Fractional : desmitdaļa
Latvian Wikipedia article on desmit
(file)

Numeral[edit]

desmit

  1. ten (the cipher, the cardinal number ten)
    skaitīt līdz desmit — to count to ten
    pieci un pieci ir desmit — five plus five is ten
    desmit un desmit ir divdesmitten plus ten is twenty
  2. ten (an amount equal to ten)
    desmit āboluten apples
    samaksāt desmit latu — to pay ten lats
    nobraukt desmit kilometru — to travel ten kilometers
    desmit gados man jāapmāca... — in ten years I have to train, instruct...
  3. ten o'clock (a moment in time; ten hours after midnight, or after noon)
    pulkstenis ir desmit — it is ten o'clock
    lekcija sākas desmitos — the lesson begnis at ten o'clock
    jāgaida līdz desmitiem — (we) must wait until ten o'clock

Declension[edit]

See also[edit]

Coordinate terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “desmit” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7