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From *piek- (whence ordinal piektais, q.v.), with k > c because of the following plural -i, extended to this previously undeclinable stem by analogy; from Proto-Baltic *penk-, from Proto-Indo-European *pénkʷe (five), a word about which several theories have been proposed (old word for “thumb;” “hand (= five fingers together);” *pen-kʷe “and pen”, perhaps from kʷetwores pen-kʷe “four and pen (= 1, one?).” Cognates include Lithuanian penkì, Sudovian pank (< *penk-), Old Prussian penckts (fifth), Proto-Slavic *pętь (Russian пять (pjatʹ), Belarusian пяць (pjacʹ), Ukrainian п'ять (pʺjatʹ), Bulgarian пет (pet), Czech pět, Slovak päť, Polish pięć), Proto-Germanic *fimf (< *pempe; Gothic 𐍆𐌹𐌼𐍆 (fimf), Old High German funf, finf, German fünf, Old English fīf, English five), Hittite paⁿta, Sanskrit पञ्चन् (pañcan), Ancient Greek πέντε (pénte), Latin quinque (< *penkʷe), Tocharian A pëñ, Tocharian B piš.[1]


Latvian cardinal numbers
 <  4 5 6  > 
    Cardinal : pieci
    Ordinal : piektais
    Multiplier : piecreiz
    Nominal : piecnieks
    Fractional : piektdaļa
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  1. five (the cipher, the cardinal number five)
    pieci un pieci ir desmitfive plus five is ten
    no pieciem atņemt četrusto subtract four from five
  2. five (A, excellent, the best school grade; syn. piecnieks)
    saņemt matemātikā piecito get an A (lit. five) in mathematics
  3. five (an amount equal to five)
    pieci litrifive liters
    piecas glāzesfive glasses
    izlasīt piecas grāmatasto read five books
    satikties ar pieciem cilvēkiemto meet with five people
    piecus gadus vecs bērnsa five-year-old boy
  4. five o'clock (a moment in time; five hours after midnight, or after noon)
    pulkstenis ir pieciit is five o'clock
    trīs minūtes pirms pieciemthree minutes to five
    lekcija beidzas piecos pēc pusdienasthe lecture finished at five o'clock after lunch (= in the afternoon)


Coordinate terms[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “pieci”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, →ISBN