duodenum

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See also: Duodenum and duodénum

English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

A schematic of the gastrointestinal tract, with the duodenum shown in orange-pink

From Medieval Latin duodēnum digitōrum (space of twelve digits) in reference to its length, from duodēnī (twelve each) + digitōrum, genitive plural of digitus (finger; toe; digit).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

duodenum (plural duodena or duodenums)

  1. (anatomy) The first part of the small intestine, starting at the lower end of the stomach and extending to the jejunum.
    • 1621, Democritus Junior [pseudonym; Robert Burton], “Dißimilar Parts”, in The Anatomy of Melancholy, Oxford: Printed by Iohn Lichfield and Iames Short, for Henry Cripps, OCLC 216894069; republished as The Anatomy of Melancholy. What It Is, with All the Kinds, Causes, Symptomes, Prognosticks, & Seuerall Cures of It. In Three Partitions, with Their Severall Sections, Members & Subsections. Philosophically, Medicinally, Historically, Opened and Cut Up, Oxford: Printed for Henry Cripps, 1628, OCLC 220775438, partition 1, section 1, member 2, subsection 4, page 17:
      From the Stomacke to the very Fundament, are produced the Guts or Inteſtina, which ſerue a little to alter and diſtribute the Chilus, and convey away the excrements. They are divided into ſmall and great, by reason of their ſite and ſubſtance, ſlender or thicker. The ſlender is Duodenum or whole gut, which is next to the ſtomacke, ſome twelue inches long (ſaith Fuſchius.)
    • 1682, A[llan] M[ullen], An Anatomical Account of the Elephant Accidentally Burnt in Dublin, on Fryday, June 17. in the Year 1681. Sent in a Letter to Sir Will[iam] Petty, Fellow of the Royal Society. Together with a Relation of New Anatomical Observations in the Eyes of Animals: Communicated in another Letter to the Honourable R[obert] Boyle, Esq.; Fellow of the Same Society, London: Printed for Sam[uel] Smith, bookseller, at the Prince's Arms in St. Paul's Church-Yard, OCLC 262025874, page 19:
      The Inteſtina tenuia were burnt in many places, but not quite through any where, excepting two or three. [] The length of that which is commonly call'd the Duodenum, was about 4½ Foot.
    • 1840, Daniel Oliver, “Nutritive Functions”, in First Lines of Physiology; Designed for the Use of Students of Medicine, 2nd edition, Philadelphia, Pa.: Published by Herman Hooker, Corner of Fifth and Chestnut Streets, OCLC 191247512, page 251:
      The duodenum receives the chyme from the stomach, and has generally been believed to accomplish the second digestion, or the conversion of chyme into chyle. In the duodenum it meets with the bile, pancreatic and intestinal fluids, loses its acid properties, and becomes alkaline, probably by the agency of the soda of the bile; []
    • 1872, B[enjamin] Thompson Lowne, Descriptive Catalogue of the Teratological Series in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, London: Printed for the College, and Sold by R[obert] Hardwicke, 192 Piccadilly, OCLC 970700900, series II (Abnormal Conditions Affecting the Axis in Animals), class II (Duplicity), subseries VI (In Mammals), subclass II (Homologous Union), page 27, preparation 115:
      The duodena open into a common pouch just below the entrance of the gall-ducts. The intestine was single from the confluence of the duodena to the termination of the jejunum.
    • 2013, “Retinaldehyde”, in Q. Ashton Acton, editor, Retinoids—Advances in Research and Application, 2013 edition, Atlanta, Ga.: ScholarlyEditions, ISBN 978-1-481-69215-1, page 36:
      Duodenums were dissected out, fixed and photographed.

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Czech[edit]

Noun[edit]

duodenum n

  1. duodenum

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Further reading[edit]

  • duodenum in Kartotéka Novočeského lexikálního archivu
  • duodenum in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989