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Alternative forms[edit]


From Proto-Indo-European *bʰrewh₁- (to be hot, boil). Cognates include Ancient Greek φρέαρ (phréar), Old Armenian բորբ (borb), Welsh berw (to boil), English burn, brew, per De Vaan[1] citing Schrijver[2].



ferveō (present infinitive fervēre, perfect active ferbuī, supine fervitum); second conjugation

  1. I am hot.
  2. I burn.
  3. I boil; seethe, foam.
  4. (figuratively) I come or swarm forth in great numbers.
  5. (figuratively) I am inflamed, agitated or fired up.


  • This verb has only limited passive conjugation; only third-person passive forms are attested in surviving sources.
   Conjugation of ferveo (second conjugation)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present ferveō fervēs fervet fervēmus fervētis fervent
imperfect fervēbam fervēbās fervēbat fervēbāmus fervēbātis fervēbant
future fervēbō fervēbis fervēbit fervēbimus fervēbitis fervēbunt
perfect ferbuī ferbuistī ferbuit ferbuimus ferbuistis ferbuērunt, ferbuēre
pluperfect ferbueram ferbuerās ferbuerat ferbuerāmus ferbuerātis ferbuerant
future perfect ferbuerō ferbueris ferbuerit ferbuerimus ferbueritis ferbuerint
passive present ferveor fervēris, fervēre fervētur fervēmur fervēminī ferventur
imperfect fervēbar fervēbāris, fervēbāre fervēbātur fervēbāmur fervēbāminī fervēbantur
future fervēbor fervēberis, fervēbere fervēbitur fervēbimur fervēbiminī fervēbuntur
perfect fervitus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect fervitus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect fervitus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present ferveam ferveās ferveat ferveāmus ferveātis ferveant
imperfect fervērem fervērēs fervēret fervērēmus fervērētis fervērent
perfect ferbuerim ferbuerīs ferbuerit ferbuerimus ferbueritis ferbuerint
pluperfect ferbuissem ferbuissēs ferbuisset ferbuissēmus ferbuissētis ferbuissent
passive present fervear ferveāris, ferveāre ferveātur ferveāmur ferveāminī ferveantur
imperfect fervērer fervērēris, fervērēre fervērētur fervērēmur fervērēminī fervērentur
perfect fervitus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect fervitus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present fervē fervēte
future fervētō fervētō fervētōte ferventō
passive present fervēre fervēminī
future fervētor fervētor ferventor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives fervēre ferbuisse fervitūrus esse fervērī fervitus esse fervitum īrī
participles fervēns fervitūrus fervitus fervendus
verbal nouns gerund supine
nominative genitive dative/ablative accusative accusative ablative
fervēre fervendī fervendō fervendum fervitum fervitū

Derived terms[edit]



  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 165
  2. ^ Schrijver, Peter C. H. (1991) The reflexes of the Proto-Indo-European laryngeals in Latin (Leiden studies in Indo-European; 2), Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi