grāmata

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See also: grāmatā

Latvian[edit]

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 grāmata on Latvian Wikipedia
Grāmatas

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Old East Slavic грамота (gramota, alphabet, writing; ability to read and write; document) (cf. Russian грамота (grámota, ability to read and write; oficial document), itself a borrowing from Ancient Greek γράμματα (grámmata, written symbols, letters). This word was borrowed into Latvian before the 13th century, referring, at first, to written religious manuscripts or texts of religious use, and only later — from the 16th century on (first attestations in dictionaries) — to printed texts. Up until the 1870s, grāmata could also refer to smaller written texts or letters; by the end of the 19th century, it had been restricted to books.[1].

Pronunciation[edit]

(file)

Noun[edit]

grāmata f (4th declension)

  1. book (a printed and bound publication with more than 48 pages)
    daiļliteratūras grāmatafiction book
    skolas grāmataschool book
    mācību grāmatatextbook
    bērnu grāmatachildren's book
    bilžu grāmatapicture book
    pasaku grāmatabook of fairy tales
    grāmatu krājums book collection
    grāmatu veikalsbook shop
    grāmatu izstādebook exposition, book fair
    grāmatu plaukts, grāmatplauktsbookshelf
    lasīt grāmatuto read a book
    iecerēt, rakstīt grāmatuto plan, to write a book
    grāmatu gudrībabook wisdom (knowledge gained from books)
    telefona grāmatatelephone book
  2. book (one of the parts in which a larger work, usually a novel, is divided)
    romāna pirmā grāmatathe first book (= part) of the novel
  3. book, register (series of usually blank pages bound or stapled together, in which something important is to be written)
    sūdzību un ierosinājumu grāmatacomplaints and suggestions book
    parakstīties viesu grāmatāto sign the guestbook
    atklājās viņa piezīmju grāmata, kurā viņš bija ierakstījis savas slepenākās domas, baidīdamies tās izrunāthis note book was found, in which he had written his most secret thoughts, fearing to say them out loud
    parasta mājas grāmata... uz vāka uz raksts “Liepu ielā 2”; iekšējās lapās ziņas par iemītniekiema normal house book (= register)... on the cover (the words) “2 Liepa street;” the pages inside (have) information on the occupants
  4. (dated sense) ability to read and write
    pēc tam viņš bija mācījis grāmatu citiem ciema bērniemafter that he had taught to read (lit. taught the book) to other village children
    viņi tikai pajautā: “vai grāmatu jau proti?”, “vai tev drīz nebūs jāsāk staigāt skolā?” — they only asked: “can you read (lit. do you know reading)?”, “won't you soon have to start going to school?”
  5. (dated sense) letter, written message
    augsti un bagāti kungi no pilsētas rakstot mērnieka cienīgam tēvam grāmatas, lūgdami, lai viņus arī pielaižot pie tās balleshigh and wealthy city gentlemen, they say, wrote letters to the honorable father of the surveyor, praying that he would let them to the ball

Declension[edit]

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See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “grāmata”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7