summer

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See also: Summer

English[edit]

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Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English somer, sumer, from Old English sumor (summer), from Proto-Germanic *sumaraz (summer), from Proto-Indo-European *sam-, *sem-, *sm̥-h₂-ó- (summer, year). Cognate with Scots somer, sumer, simer (summer), West Frisian simmer (summer), Saterland Frisian Suumer (summer), Dutch zomer (summer), Low German Sommer (summer), German Sommer (summer), Swedish sommar (summer), Icelandic sumar (summer), Welsh haf (summer), Armenian ամ (am, year), ամառ (amaṙ, summer), Sanskrit [script?] (sámā, a half-year, season, weather, year).

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

summer (plural summers)

  1. One of four seasons, traditionally the second, marked by the longest and typically hottest days of the year due to the inclination of the Earth and thermal lag. Typically regarded as being from June 21 to September 22 or 23 in parts of the USA, the months of June, July and August in the United Kingdom and the months of December, January and February in the Southern Hemisphere.
    the heat of summer
    • a1420, The British Museum Additional MS, 12,056, “Wounds complicated by the Dislocation of a Bone”, in Robert von Fleischhacker editor, Lanfranc's "Science of cirurgie.", London: K. Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co, translation of original by Lanfranc of Milan, ISBN 1163911380, published 1894, page 63:
      Ne take noon hede to brynge togidere þe parties of þe boon þat is to-broken or dislocate, til viij. daies ben goon in þe wyntir, & v. in þe somer; for þanne it schal make quytture, and be sikir from swellynge; & þanne brynge togidere þe brynkis eiþer þe disiuncture after þe techynge þat schal be seid in þe chapitle of algebra.
    • 1893, Walter Besant, chapter 2, The Ivory Gate:
      At twilight in the summer there is never anybody to fear—man, woman, or cat—in the chambers and at that hour the mice come out. They do not eat parchment or foolscap or red tape, but they eat the luncheon crumbs.
    • 1913, Joseph C. Lincoln, chapter 1, Mr. Pratt's Patients:
      A chap named Eleazir Kendrick and I had chummed in together the summer afore and built a fish-weir and shanty at Setuckit Point, down Orham way. For a spell we done pretty well.
    • 1963, Margery Allingham, chapter 5, The China Governess[1]:
      A waiter brought his aperitif, which was a small scotch and soda, and as he sipped it gratefully he sighed.
         ‘Civilized,’ he said to Mr. Campion. ‘Humanizing.’ [] ‘Cigars and summer days and women in big hats with swansdown face-powder, that's what it reminds me of.’
Usage notes[edit]
  • Note that season names are usually spelled in all lowercase letters in English. This is contrast to the days of the week and months of the year, which are always spelled with a capitalized first letter, for example Thursday or September.
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Verb[edit]

summer (third-person singular simple present summers, present participle summering, simple past and past participle summered)

  1. (intransitive) To spend the summer, as in a particular place on holiday.
    We like to summer in the Mediterranean.
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Etymology 2[edit]

From Anglo-Norman somer, sumer, from Vulgar Latin saumārius, for Latin sagmārius, from sagma (sum).

Noun[edit]

summer (plural summers)

  1. (obsolete) A pack-horse.
  2. A horizontal beam supporting a building.
    • 1603, John Florio, trans. Michel de Montaigne, Essays, I.43:
      And we are warned, that the foundation or maine summers of our houses faile and shrinke, when we see the quarters bend, or wals to breake.
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Etymology 3[edit]

sum +‎ -er

Noun[edit]

summer (plural summers)

  1. A person who sums.
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Statistics[edit]