īpašs

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Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Originally a compound, from an old third-person pronominal element *i- (whence also Latvian it, q.v.) and the (reflexive) pronominal element pats. An original u-stem *īpatus became īpats (peculiar) (more frequently īpatnējs), while a parallel i-stem form yielded īpašs (such pairs were frequent, sometimes suriving to the present day; cf. e.g. plats and plašs). The meaning has varied throughout time, from “its own,” “self” (17th century) to “s/he/it him/her/itself” (18th century) to finally the modern sense of “special” (19th century). Cognates include Lithuanian ypatùs (special, peculiar, different).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Adjective[edit]

īpašs (definite īpašais, comparative īpašāks, superlative visīpašākais, adverb īpaši)

  1. specific, independent (separate from others)
    viņam bija uzlikts tas pats ēdiens uz īpaša galdiņahe was served the same dish on a special table
    vārda dienā jau mēdz ierasties bez īpašas aicināšanas!people come on (one's) name day without special invitation!
  2. special, particular, specific (different from others, from usual)
    pievērst, veltīt īpašu uzmanībuto pay special attention
    šī bija īpaša dienathis was a special day
    vai kaut kas īpašs noticis?has anything special happened?
    viņa strādāja labi, ar īpašu dedzībushe worked well, with special zeal
  3. specific, peculiar, unusual, unique, distinct
    Ārija parausta plecus tādā īpašā manierē, citas meitenes to neprotĀrija shrugs (her) shoulds in such a unique manner, the other girls can't do it
    katra laikmeta dzīve atklājas īpašos konfliktos, īpašos sižetos un tēlosthe life of every era appears in (its) specific conflicts, in (its) speciic plots and characters
    tulkojumi ir īpašs literatūras žanrs ar savu specifikutranslations are a distinct literary genre with its own specificities
  4. (adverbial form) especially, specifically, on purpose, deliberately
    Juzītis pats tikko esot te bijis, īpaši braucis no Rīgas, lai viņu apciemotu!Juzītis himself had just been there, (having) traveled from Riga specifically to visit him

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References[edit]

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “īpašs”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7