когда

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Russian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *koda, from which the following words also were derived: Old Church Slavonic къгда ‎(kŭgda), Bulgarian кога ‎(koga), Polish kiedy, Serbo-Croatian када, Czech kdy, Polish gdy, Lower Sorbian gdy. Originally the word was probably *koda; compare Lithuanian kada ‎(when), Latvian kad, Old Indic and Hindi कदा (kəda), Avestan kadā. From *koda came *kъdа, possibly under the influence of *kъdе, kъtо. On the other hand, one may perceive in когда́ ‎(kogdá) the old instrumental singular *godō of the word год ‎(god) (the old meaning of which was “time, period”) with the interrogative particle ко-, making a genitive singular form *kogo goda (which time?). Thus the -гда ending may have derived from the genitive of год ‎(god, period of time).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [kɐɡˈda]
  • (colloquial, casual, fast speech) IPA(key): [kɐˈda] (phonetic respelling: када́)
  • (file)

Adverb[edit]

когда́ ‎(kogdá)

  1. when
    Когда́ вы прие́хали?‎ ― Kogdá vy prijéxali? ― When did you arrive?

Conjunction[edit]

когда́ ‎(kogdá)

  1. when
    Я не зна́ю, когда́ э́то бы́ло.‎ ― Ja ne znáju, kogdá éto býlo. ― I don’t know when it was.

Usage notes[edit]

Both the subordinate clause with the conjunction когда and the main clause can have either an imperfective or a perfective verb. However, the whole context of the respective sentences could be different due to the difference of the aspects.

Related terms[edit]


Derived terms[edit]