ἐρυθρός

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See also: ερυθρός

Ancient Greek[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Indo-European *h₁rudʰrós (red), from the root *h₁rewdʰ-.

Cognates include Mycenaean Greek 𐀁𐀬𐀲𐀨 (e-ru-ta-ra), Latin ruber, Sanskrit रुधिर (rudhirá), Tocharian A/B rtär/ratre, and Old English rēad (English red).

Here Greek is the only language to preserve the sound of the laryngeal *h₁ at the beginning of the word, which became ε (e).

Pronunciation[edit]

 

Adjective[edit]

ἐρῠθρός (eruthrósm (feminine ἐρῠθρᾱ́, neuter ἐρῠθρόν); first/second declension

  1. reddish, red
    • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 9.365–367:
      ἄλλον δ’ ἐνθένδε χρυσὸν καὶ χαλκὸν ἐρυθρὸν
      ἠδὲ γυναῖκας ἐϋζώνους πολιόν τε σίδηρον
      ἄξομαι,
      állon d’ enthénde khrusòn kaì khalkòn eruthròn
      ēdè gunaîkas eüzṓnous polión te sídēron
      áxomai,
      From there I will bring more gold and red bronze and fair-girdled women and much iron,
    • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Odyssey 5.165–166:
      αὐτὰρ ἐγὼ σῖτον καὶ ὕδωρ καὶ οἶνον ἐρυθρὸν
      ἐνθήσω μενοεικέ’,
      autàr egṑ sîton kaì húdōr kaì oînon eruthròn
      enthḗsō menoeiké’,
      And I'll put satisfying food and water and red wine on [the boat],
    • 6th century BC, Theognis of Megara, Elegies 449–450:
      εὑρήσεις δέ με πᾶσιν ἐπ’ ἔργμασιν ὥσπερ ἄπεφθον
      χρῡσὸν ἐρυθρὸν ἰδεῖν τρῑβόμενον βασάνῳ
      heurḗseis dé me pâsin ep’ érgmasin hṓsper ápephthon
      khrūsòn eruthròn ideîn trībómenon basánōi
      You will find me in all my actions like refined
      gold, red to the eye when rubbed against a touchstone
    Synonym: πυρρός (purrhós)
  2. (substantive, ἐρυθρόν ᾠόν) egg yolk

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • English: erythro-
  • English: threo-
  • English: thre-
  • Greek: ερυθρός (erythrós)

References[edit]