決める

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Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 3
kun’yomi

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Derived as the transitive form of Old Japanese verb 決む (kimu, to decide something, to conclude something; to be decided, to be concluded).[1][2][3]

The source verb kimu appears to follow a common pattern in Old Japanese verbs where the bare form is either transitive or intransitive, depending on context. This pattern persists in some modern verbs, such as つく (tsuku). Many of these Old Japanese verbs developed explicit transitive and intransitive forms, with one group adopting an -aru on the end for the intransitive (as the 未然形 (mizenkei, irrealis or incomplete form) ending in -a + the conjugating (ru) as the basic spontaneous or passive verb ending), and an -eru on the end for the transitive (as the 已然形 (izenkei, realis or potential form) + the disappearing (ru) as a generic verb ending).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Tokyo pitch accent of conjugated forms of "決める"
Source: Online Japanese Accent Dictionary
Stem forms
Terminal (終止形)
Attributive (連体形)
決める める [kìmérú]
Imperative (命令形) 決めろ めろ [kìméró]
Key constructions
Passive 決められる められる [kìmérárérú]
Causative 決めさせる めさせる [kìmésásérú]
Potential 決められる められる [kìmérárérú]
Volitional 決めよう めよ [kìméyóꜜò]
Negative 決めない めない [kìménáí]
Negative perfective 決めなかった めなかった [kìménáꜜkàttà]
Formal 決めます めま [kìmémáꜜsù]
Perfective 決めた めた [kìmétá]
Conjunctive 決めて めて [kìmété]
Hypothetical conditional 決めれば めれ [kìméréꜜbà]

Verb[edit]

()める (kimerutransitive ichidan (stem () (kime), past ()めた (kimeta))

Japanese verb pair
active 決める
mediopassive 決まる
  1. to make a choice between multiple alternatives, to decide
    ()(ちじ)()める
    nichiji o kimeru
    to choose a time
    This verb also has many idiomatic shades of meaning based on the underlying sense of decide:
    1. to decide to do something: to do something on purpose
      (おう)(ちゃく)()める
      ōchaku o kimeru
      to decide to shirk → to shirk intentionally
    2. to perform a maneuver, to carry out a tactical action
      スクイズを()めた
      sukuizu o kimeta
      We've decided on the squeeze → The squeeze play is on.
    3. to decide on an opinion: to believe in an opinion firmly
      (かれ)(はん)(にん)()めてかかる
      kare o hannin to kimete kakaru
      I know he was the murderer from the very beginning
    4. to decide on a common course of action: to be accustomed to do, to do habitually
      (ちょう)(しょく)はパンに()めている
      chōshoku wa pan ni kimete iru
      I always eat bread for breakfast
      This usage takes the particle (ni), and usually uses the -ている (-te iru) progressive form.
    5. to make an impressive or attractive physical appearance, usually by grooming oneself or making some unusual gestures
      (くろ)背広(せびろ)紺色(こんいろ)のシャツで()める
      kuroi sebiro to kon'iro no shatsu de kimeru
      to decide on one's appearance with a black suit and indigo shirt → to be set or look sharp in a black suit and indigo shirt
    6. (derogatory) to decide to eat or use something: to eat, to intake, to consume
      シャブキメる
      shabu o kimeru
      to use addictive drugs

Conjugation[edit]

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  4. 4.0 4.1 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN