Appendix:Romanian verb conjugation
There are four basic conjugation types in Romanian.
- Type 1 — verb infinitive ending in -a
- Type 2 — verb infinitive ending in -ea
- Type 3 — verb infinitive ending in -e
- Type 4 — verb infinitive ending in -i or -î
There are variations within each class. For instance, some type 3 verbs have past participles ending in -ut while others end in -s. More information on such differences can be found in the respective appendices for conjugation. Types: 1 - 2 - 3 4
Moduri impersonale (Impersonal/Non-personal moods)
The infinitive is the basic form of a verb that you would find in a dictionary.
The past infinitive is formed by combining a fi and the past participle of a verb. Examples:
- a fi iubit — to have loved
- a fi cântat — to have sung
- a fi putut — to have been able
- a fi spus — to have said
- L-am auzit cântând — I heard him singing
- L-am auzit cântându-i fetei — I heard him singing to the girl
- L-am auzit cântându-le fetelor — I heard him singing to the girls
- Am auzit-o cântându-i prietenului ei — I heard her singing to her friend
- El cântă folosind cuvinte din limbi străine — He sings using words from foreign languages
As with the participle, gerunds are negated with the prefix "ne-".
- Ea cântă nefolosind cuvinte din limbi străine — She sings without using words from foreign languages
Participiu (Past participle)
Negative past participles are only used as adjectives. For instance, you can not say "eu am nevorbit" if you mean "I have not spoken." The correct way to say this would be "eu nu am (or n-am) vorbit."
- necântat — unsung
- un cuvânt nevorbit — an unspoken word
- o melodie necântată — an unsung melody
- cuvintele nevorbite — the unspoken words
Past participles can also be used as adjectives. In these cases, they are declined in the same manner as 4-form adjectives.
- cântați — sung (masculine plural)
- vorbită — spoken (feminine singular)
- necântat — unsung (masculine & neuter singular)
- nevorbite — unspoken (feminine & neuter plural)
The supine is formed simply by adding de before the past participle, although its use without "de" is possible, in which case it acts as a sort of noun.
- am nevoie de ceva de mâncat — I need something to eat
- dacă aveam de ales — If I had to choose
Moduri personale (Personal moods)
|present tense endings|
|4. i (-esc-)
|4. î (-ăsc-)
- eu cânt — I sing, I am singing
- tu cânți — you sing, you are singing
- eu citesc — I read, I am reading
- el citește — he reads, he is reading
- eu cântam — I was singing
- tu cântai — you were singing
- eu citeam — I was reading
- el citea — he was reading
Perfect simplu (Simple perfect, Preterite)
Outside of the region of Oltenia (in South-West Romania) this tense is not commonly used. In most parts of Romania, the Perfect compus (or compound perfect) is preferred. In places where the compus is preferred, when the simple perfect is used, it generally indicates that an action was completed in the very near past.
Mai mult ca perfect (Pluperfect)
|note that in all cases except for the 1st person singular, the pluperfect is formed by adding -se- before the preterite ending.|
- eu cântasem — I had sung
- tu cântaseși — you had sung
- eu citisem — I had read
- el citise — he had read
Viitorul indicativ (Future indicative)
Viitor I (Future)
The above auxiliaries are used with infinitives to form the literary future.
Viitor 2 (Future perfect)
The future perfect is formed by using the above auxiliaries with fi and the past participle.
The first type of popular future is formed simply by adding "o" to the subjunctive form of a verb.
- el o să cânte ceva pentru noi — he will sing something for us.
- el o să citească - he is going to read
|present tense of avea|
- el are să cânte ceva pentru noi — he will sing something for us.
- el are să citească - he is going to read
Popular 2 is often used when it would be easy to confuse forms were they in the Popular 1.
- o să mor vs. o să mori — ??? (Spoken, this may cause confusion due to the fact that the "i" in mori would be nearly whispered, making it sound very similar to mor.)
- am să mor vs. ai să mori — I am going to die vs. You are going to die
Future in the past
|imperfect tense of avea|
The "future in the past" is formed with the imperfect tenses of avea (seen above) with the subjunctive form of a verb.
- aveam să cânt — I was going to sing
- avea să cânte — He was going to sing
- aveați să citiți? — Were you going to read?
- aveau să vină — They were going to come
Subjunctives, as in many other languages, suggest an uncertain action or occurrence. When used alone, subjunctives are usually translated with "should."
The subjunctive is identified by the conjunction să.
- noi să fi stat acasă ieri — We should have stayed home yesterday
- nu mi-amintesc să fi fost cu tine ieri — I don't remember being with you yesterday
- nu mi-amintesc să fi văzut acest film niciodată — I don't remember ever seeing this film
In most cases, the subjunctive forms of verbs in 1st and 2nd persons, singular and plural, are the same as their present tense counterparts. (One exception that comes to mind is the verb a fi, "to be," in which every person and number has another subjunctive form.) In the 3rd person, however, almost all verbs change slightly. The general rule is that ă will change to e and vice-versa. 3rd person subjunctives share one form for plural and singular.
- el cântă → el să cânte
- el deranjează → el să deranjeze
- el vine → el să vină
- el citește → el să citească
- el urăște → el să urască
The subjunctive past is formed by combining să fi with the past participle of the verb in question.
The imperative only exists for the 2nd person in Romanian. The 2nd person singular imperative is generally the same as the 3rd person singular present form; aside from this, there is no one rule for forming this imperative. The 2nd person plural imperative is almost always the same as the 2nd person plural present form.
In the 2nd person singular, the imperative is not simply negated with "nu". Instead, the infinitive is used. The plural does not go through such a change.
For both singular and plural, the word order also changes slightly.
Perfect compus (Compound perfect)
|auxiliaries for forming the compus|
The above auxiliaries are used with past participles to form the perfect compus.
The above auxiliaries are used with infinitives to form the present optative/conditional.
The past conditional is formed by combining one of the above auxiliaries with fi and the past participle of the verb.
The above auxiliaries are used with infinitives to form the present presumptive.
The past presumptive is formed by combining one of the above auxiliaries with fi and the past participle of the verb.