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Alternative forms[edit]

  • ac (esp. before consonants)
  • adque (about as common as the form with -t-)


Either from ad (to) + -que (and) or from at (yet, whereas) + -que (and).[1]




  1. and, and also, and even, and too
    Ad vim atque ad arma cōnfugere.
    To resort to violence and to arms.
    habēmus pāpam – ēminentissimum ac reverendissimum dominum []
    We have a Pope – the Most Eminent and Most Reverend Lord []
    (literally, “...the most outstanding and most to-be-revered...”)
    • 63 BCE, Cicero, Catiline Orations Oratio in Catilinam Prima in Senatu Habita.1:
      Quam diū quisquam erit quī tē dēfendēre audeat, vīvēs, et vīvēs ita ut nunc vīvis, multīs meīs et firmīs praesidiīs obsessus nē commōvēre tē contrā rem pūblicam possīs. Multōrum tē etiam oculī et aurēs nōn sentientem, sīcut adhūc fēcērunt, speculābuntur atque custōdient.
      As long as one person exists who can dare to defend you, you shall live; but you shall live as you do now, surrounded by my many and trusty guards, so that you shall not be able to stir one finger against the republic: many people's eyes and ears shall still observe and watch you, as they have hitherto done, though you shall not perceive them.
  2. yet, nevertheless
  3. (after words expressing comparison) as, than
    • 100 BCE – 44 BCE, Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Civil War 3.51.4:
      [] alia enim sunt lēgātī partēs atque imperātōris []
      [] after all, the duties of the legate aren't the same as those of the general []
    • 86 BCEc. 35 BCE, Sallust, The War with Jugurtha 7.3.1:
      Sed ea rēs longē aliter, ac ratus erat, ēvēnit.
      But the result was far different from what he had anticipated.
    • c. 52 BCE, Julius Caesar, Commentarii de Bello Gallico 7.14:
      Docet longe alia ratione esse bellum gerendum atque antea gestum sit
      He teaches that they must fight by a very different method from that which had been previously adopted

Usage notes[edit]

  • Although there is much variation in manuscript spellings, atque is usually found in front of words beginning with a vowel or an h while ac is more common before consonants.


  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “ad”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 24

Further reading[edit]

  • atque”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • atque”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • atque in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • more than once; repeatedly: semel atque iterum; iterum ac saepius; identidem; etiam atque etiam
    • the spirit of the times, the fashion: saeculi consuetudo or ratio atque inclinatio temporis (temporum)
    • to entreat earnestly; to make urgent requests: magno opere, vehementer, etiam atque etiam rogare aliquem
    • to strain every nerve, do one's utmost in a matter: omni ope atque opera or omni virium contentione eniti, ut
    • zealous pursuit of truth: veri inquisitio atque investigatio
    • to have had practical experience: in rebus atque in usu versatum esse
    • to have attained to a high degree of culture: omni vita atque victu excultum atque expolitum esse (Brut. 25. 95)
    • the exalted strain of the speech: elatio atque altitudo orationis
    • to be dear to some one: carum atque iucundum esse alicui
    • something is contrary to my moral sense, goes against my principles: aliquid abhorret a meis moribus (opp. insitum [atque innatum] est animo or in animo alicuius)
    • to have the good of the state at heart: omnia de re publica praeclara atque egregia sentire
    • an impartial witness: testis incorruptus atque integer
    • to carry off booty: ferre atque agere praedam
    • to ravage with fire and sword: omnia ferro ignique, ferro atque igni or ferro flammaque vastare
    • to surrender oneself to the discretion of some one: se permittere in fidem atque in potestatem alicuius (B. G. 2. 3)
    • as if the victory were already won: sicut parta iam atque explorata victoria
    • so much for this subject...; enough has been said on..: atque or sed haec (quidem) hactenus
    • so much for this subject...; enough has been said on..: atque haec quidem de...
    • there is this also to notice: atque etiam hoc animadvertendum est
    • it is quite manifest: exstat atque eminet
  • atque in Ramminger, Johann (accessed 16 July 2016) Neulateinische Wortliste: Ein Wörterbuch des Lateinischen von Petrarca bis 1700[2], pre-publication website, 2005-2016