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Alternative forms[edit]


From Proto-Italic *-kʷe (and), from Proto-Indo-European *-kʷe (and). Cognates include Sanskrit (ca), Ancient Greek τε (te), Proto-Germanic *-hw ( → English (thou)gh). Its alternative use as a generalizing particle "any, -every" with pronouns and adverbs may result from a shift from an earlier meaning along the lines of "as".[1] There are also a number of words that are etymologically suffixed with this particle but that have developed specific meanings not clearly analyzable in terms of either of these senses, such as dēnique (finally; at length).[1]



-que (enclitic)

  1. and, coordinating conjunction
    • 6th or 5th century BCE, Castor-Pollux dedication (image (page 3; requires access to JSTOR); facsimile):
      Castorei Podlouqueique qurois
      To Castor and Pollux, the Dioskouroi
    • 63 BCE, Cicero, Catiline Orations Oratio in Catilinam Prima in Senatu Habita.VIII:
      Nihil agis, nihil moliris, nihil cogitas quod non ego non modo audiam sed etiam videam planeque sentiam.
      There is nothing you do, nothing you plot, nothing you think about, that I do not only hear of, but actually see as well and distinctly discern.
    • 29 BCE – 19 BCE, Virgil, Aeneid I.1:
      Arma virumque cano.
      I sing of arms and the man...
    Senatus Populusque Romanus.
    The Senate and the People of Rome
    (literally, “The Roman Senate and People”)
  2. (when repeated) "both... and", "whether... or"
    • 29 bc. Vergil. Georgics, III
      ...hominvmqve ferarvmqve...
      ...both of man and of beast...
  3. introducing an explanatory clause
  4. (rare) used in an answer

Usage notes[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]



  1. -ever; every-, any-; every, each ('universalizing'[1] or 'generalizing'[3] particle found in a fixed set of indefinite pronouns and adverbs)
    quis (who) + ‎-que (-ever) → ‎quisque (whoever; anyone; each one)
    cum (when) + ‎-que (-ever) → ‎cumque (whenever; however)
    ubī (where) + ‎-que (-ever) → ‎ubīque (wherever, anywhere, everywhere)

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Tore Jansen (1979) Mechanisms of Language Change in Latin[1], pages 102-103
  2. ^ Harm Pinkster (2015) The Oxford Latin Syntax, volumes 2. The Complex Sentence and Discourse, page 627
  3. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) “-que”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 506