bēda

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search
See also: beda, Beda, będą, bēdā, and běda

Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Baltic *bēd-, from Proto-Indo-European *bʰēdʰ-, the lengthened grade of *bʰedʰ- ‎(to bend, to press). Via ē > ey alternation, there was also a parallel form *bʰeydʰ-, from which derive the Germanic and Greek forms, and its o-grade *bʰoydʰ-, from which derive the Slavic forms. (Some specialists consider bēda a borrowing from Slavic, but the falling intonation is not usually found on borrowings.) The meaning change was probably “to bend, to press” > “to experience coertion, humiliation” > “(to be in) a bad situation.” Cognates include Lithuanian bėdà, Proto-Slavic *bēda ‎(adversity, misery) (Russian беда́ ‎(bedá, adversity, tribulation, disaster), Belarusian бе́дны ‎(bjédny), бяда́ ‎(bjadá), Ukrainian біда́ ‎(bidá), Czech běda, bída ‎(need, poverty), Polish bieda ‎(poverty, deprivation, unhappiness)), Gothic 𐌱𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌾𐌰𐌽 ‎(baidjan, to ask for, to force), Old High German beitten ‎(ask for), Gothic 𐌱𐌹𐌳𐌾𐌰𐌽 ‎(bidjan, to ask, to request) (< “to bend”), Old High German, German bitten, Sanskrit बाधते ‎(bā́dhate, to press), बाधाः ‎(bādháḥ, obstacle, hardship), Ancient Greek πείθω ‎(peíthō, to convince, to persuade), Latin fīdo ‎(to trust, to rely upon) (< *bʰidʰ-, the zero grade of *bʰeydʰ-).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

(file)

Noun[edit]

bēda f (4th declension)

  1. (only plural) sadness, sorrow, grief (emotional state caused by, e.g., unhappiness, loss)
    dziļas bēdas — deep sorrow
    ciest bēdas — to suffer grief
    palīdzēt, dalīties bēdās — to help, to share in (case of) sorrow
    mierināt draugu bēdās — to comfort a friend in sorrow
    bēdu sagrauzts cilvēks — a person afficlted with grief, a grieving person
  2. trouble, misfortune, disaster (unpleasant event, circumstance, condition; thoughts about such an event; concern)
    liela bēda — great misfortune
    maza bēda — little problem, trouble
    pārvarēt bēdu — to overcome a disaster
    tā nav nekāda bēda — this is no big trouble
    kas man bēdas! — what trouble (is) that to me!
    (= I don't care about it, it doesn't affect me)

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Antonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “bēda” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7