bruken

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Low German[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle Low German brûken, Old Saxon brūkan, from Proto-Germanic *brūkaną.

Verb[edit]

bruken (third-person singular simple present bruukt, past tense bruuk, past participle bruukt, auxiliary verb hebben)

  1. to need to, to have to (in negation or with the adverb alleen (just, only), you can also use möten)
    Du bruukst nich op mi to töven.
    You don’t need to wait for me.
    (or Du musst nich op mi to töven, see usage notes).

Conjugation[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

  • In a negative sentence, möten or dörven are often used instead of bruken. For example, you don't need to go yet is usually translated by du musst noch nich gahn instead of du bruukst noch nich to gahn.
  • The verb nödig hebben is used to express the need of something.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle Low German gebrūken, Old Saxon gibrūkan, from Proto-Germanic *gabrūkaną.

Verb[edit]

bruken (third-person singular simple present bruukt, past tense bruuk, past participle bruukt, auxiliary verb hebben)

  1. to use

Conjugation[edit]


Middle Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Dutch *brūkan, from Proto-Germanic *brūkaną.

Verb[edit]

bruken

  1. to use
  2. to enjoy (the use/benefit of)
  3. to lease (of land)
  4. to sell (of small things)

Inflection[edit]

Weak
Infinitive bruken
3rd sg. past
3rd pl. past
Past participle
Infinitive bruken
In genitive brukens
In dative brukene
Indicative Present Past
1st singular bruke
2nd singular bruucs, brukes
3rd singular bruuct, bruket
1st plural bruken
2nd plural bruuct, bruket
3rd plural bruken
Subjunctive Present Past
1st singular bruke
2nd singular bruucs, brukes
3rd singular bruke
1st plural bruken
2nd plural bruuct, bruket
3rd plural bruken
Imperative Present
Singular bruuc, bruke
Plural bruuct, bruket
Present Past
Participle brukende

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • bruken”, in Vroegmiddelnederlands Woordenboek, 2000
  • bruken”, in Middelnederlandsch Woordenboek, 1929

Middle Low German[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Saxon brūkan, from Proto-Germanic *brūkaną.

Verb[edit]

brûken

  1. to use, utilise, to make use of either an object or a right
  2. to enjoy, to have use from
  3. to need
  4. to work in a craft

Declension[edit]


Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

bruken m, n

  1. definite masculine singular of bruk (Noun 1)

Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

bruken m, n

  1. definite masculine singular of bruk (Noun 1)

Swedish[edit]

Noun[edit]

bruken

  1. definite plural of bruk