carbonado

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English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Carbonados, in this case beef sausages that have been scored and broiled, in Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany

Etymology 1[edit]

From Spanish carbonada (carbonized) (from carbonar (to carbonize)) + -ado (suffix forming past participles of regular verbs ending in -ar). Carbonada appears to have been modelled after Italian carbonata (coal pile; stew of beef in red wine), from carbone (coal; charcoal) (from Latin carbō (coal; charcoal), from Proto-Indo-European *ker- (to burn)) + -ata.[1]

The verb is derived from the noun.[2]

Noun[edit]

carbonado (plural carbonados or carbonadoes)

  1. (cooking, dated) Meat or fish that has been scored and broiled.
    Synonym: carbonade
    • c. 1587–1588, [Christopher Marlowe], Tamburlaine the Great. [] The First Part [], part 1, 2nd edition, London: Printed by [R. Robinson for] Richard Iones, [], published 1592, OCLC 932920499; reprinted as Tamburlaine the Great (A Scolar Press Facsimile), Menston, Yorkshire; London: Scolar Press, 1973, →ISBN, Act IV, scene iv:
      Take it vp Villain, and eat it, or I will make thee ſlice the brawnes of thy armes into carbonadoes, and eat them.
    • c. 1608–1609, William Shakespeare, “The Tragedy of Coriolanus”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies: Published According to the True Originall Copies (First Folio), London: Printed by Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act IV, scene v], page 23, column 1:
      [T]o ſay the Troth on't before Corioles, he ſcotcht him, and notcht him like a Carbinado.
    • 1861, William Harrison Ainsworth, “The Constable of the Tower. An Historical Romance.”, in Bentley’s Miscellany, volume XLIX, London: Chapman and Hall, [], OCLC 1071749920, book I, chapter XIX (Pulvis Pulveri, Cinis Cineri), page 390:
      Our giants again found their way to the larder, and broke theirfast with collops, rashers, carbonados, a shield of brawn and mustard, and a noble sirloin of beef, making sad havoc with the latter, and washing down the viands with copious draughts of humming ale.
    • 1867, John Timbs, “The English Housewife”, in Nooks and Corners of English Life, Past and Present, 2nd edition, London: Griffith and Farran, (successors to Newbery and Harris,) [], OCLC 84290335, page 163:
      The carbonadoes consisted of any meat scotched on both sides and sprinkled with seasonings in various combinations, and then either broiled over the fire or before it.
    • 1989, Rose Tremain, “Wedding Games”, in Restoration: A Novel, London: Hamish Hamilton, →ISBN; republished London: Random House, 2010, →ISBN:
      With a quick sweep of my eye, I see fricassées, steamed bass and poached salmon, roast snipe, peacock, teal, mallard and quail, game pies and carbonados, tarts of marrowbone, neats' tongues, venison pasties, baked guinea fowl, compound salads, dishes of cream, quinces, comfits and marzipans, preserves, cheeses and fruits.
Translations[edit]

Verb[edit]

carbonado (third-person singular simple present carbonados, present participle carbonadoing, simple past and past participle carbonadoed)

  1. (transitive, dated, also figuratively) To make a carbonado of; to score and broil.
    • c. 1615–1616, Francis Beaumont; John Fletcher, “Loves Pilgramage, a Comedy”, in Fifty Comedies and Tragedies. [], [part 2], London: Printed by J[ohn] Macock [and H. Hills], for John Martyn, Henry Herringman, and Richard Marriot, published 1679, OCLC 1015511273, Act I, scene i, page 69, column 2:
      Has he beſpoke, what will he have a brace, / Or but one Partridge, or a ſhort-leg'd Hen, / Daintyly carbonado'd?
    • 1623, G[ervase] M[arkham], “Of the Outward and Actiue Knowledge of the Hous-wife; and of Her Skill in Cookerie; as Sallets of All Sorts, with Flesh, Fish, Sauces, Pastrie, Banqueting-stuffe, and Ordering of Great Feasts: Also Distillations, Perfumes, Conceited Secrets, and Preseruing Wine of All Sorts”, in Covntrey Contentments, or The English Husvvife. [], London: Printed by I. B. for R. Iackson, [], OCLC 42982121, page 91:
      Now for the manner of Carbonadoing, it is in this ſort; you ſhall firſt take the meate you muſt Carbonadoe, and ſcorch it both aboue and below, then ſprinkle good ſtore of Salt vpon it, and baſte it all ouer with ſweet Butter melted, []
    • 1675, William Rabisha, “Book IX. Contains Hash, Stewed, Broyled and Carbonadoed Meats.”, in The Whole Body of Cookery Dissected: [], 2nd edition, London: Printed for E. C. [a]nd are to be sold by Francis Smith, [], OCLC 53981559, page 94:
      To Carbonado Veal. Take a breaſt of Veal, lard it very thick with bacon, and when it is boyled, Carbonado it long, and croſs-wayes; []
  2. (transitive, obsolete) To cut or hack, as in combat.
    Synonym: slash
Translations[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Three carbonado diamondites from the Central African Republic

Borrowed from Portuguese carbonado (carbonized), probably from carbono (carbon) (currently only attested later than carbonado) + -ado (suffix forming adjectives from nouns meaning ‘something or someone who has suffered the action’).[3] Carbono is borrowed from French carbone (carbon), from Latin carbō (coal; charcoal); for further derivation, see etymology 1.

Noun[edit]

carbonado (plural carbonados or carbonadoes)

  1. (mineralogy) A dark, non-transparent, impure form of polycrystalline diamond (also containing graphite and amorphous carbon) used in drilling.
    Synonym: black diamond
    • 1873 October, “Some New Facts Concerning the Diamond”, in William Crookes, editor, The Quarterly Journal of Science, and Annals of Mining, Metallurgy, Engineering, Industrial Arts, Manufactures, and Technology, volume III (New Series; volume X overall), London: Offices of the Quarterly Journal of Science, 3, Horse-shoe Court, Ludgate Hill; Paris: Friedrich Klincksieck; Leipzg: Alfons Dürr, OCLC 173377378, page 439:
      At present, equal attention is paid to irregular fragments of a blackish or greyish colour, occasionally of considerable size, also yielded by the washings of diamandiferous sand, which formerly passed unregarded. These fragments are now carefully colected, and have acquired some considerable value in commerce, where they are known under the name of carbonado or carbon. [] An examination of these numerous varieties has made it evident that between carbonado of a simply micro-crystalline texture, and the diamond regularly crystallised in diaphanous octahedrons, there exists an uninterrupted series of intermediate conditions.
    • 1928 January, Orville H. Kneen, “Gems that Work for a Living: Black Diamonds, the Most Precious Stones on Earth, Put to Curious Industrial Uses”, in The Popular Science Monthly, volume 112, number 1, New York, N.Y.: Popular Science Publishing Company, ISSN 0032-4647, OCLC 498719638, page 133, column 1:
      Brazil's carbonadoes are indispensable today for the speedy cutting of hard rubber, bakelite and fiber compounds. Their absolute precision is especially valuable in turning such instruments as high-power telescopes and microscope tubes.
    • 1974, Ye. V. Frantsesson; F. V. Kaminskiy, “Carbonado, a Diamond Variety of Nonkimberlitic Origin”, in Doklady: Earth Science Sections, Falls Church, Va.: American Geological Institute, OCLC 605270608, page 117:
      Carbonado, the granular variety of diamond, is a porous micro- or cryptocrystalline aggregate, composed of anhedral grains and crystallites of octahedral or, less commonly, cubic habit that range in size from 0.5 to 50 nm.
    • 2005, Wolf Uwe Reimold [et al.], “Economic Mineral Deposits in Impact Structures: A Review”, in Christian Koeberl and Herbert Henkel, editors, Impact Tectonics (Impact Studies), Berlin; Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, →ISBN, ISSN 1612-8338, section 3.2 (The Carbonado Conundrum), page 505:
      Carbonados are polycrystalline diamond aggregates of generally irregular shapes that have been observed in placer deposits and low-grade metamorphic rocks of mainly Brazil, Russia, South Africa, Ukraine, Venezuela, and the Central African Republic. [] Smith and Dawson (1985), consequently, suggested that carbonados could have been formed as a consequence of Precambrian impact events into carbon-bearing crustal rocks. All other traces of these impacts and the related impact structures apparently have been eroded, and only the carbonados had survived erosion and were then incorporated into sedimentary rocks.

Coordinate terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ carbonado, n.1”, in OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford: Oxford University Press, December 2008.
  2. ^ carbonado, v.”, in OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford: Oxford University Press, December 2008.
  3. ^ carbonado, n.2”, in OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford: Oxford University Press, December 2008; “carbonado” in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press.

Further reading[edit]


Italian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

carbo- +‎

Noun[edit]

carbonado m (plural carbonadi)

  1. carbonado (black diamond)

Spanish[edit]

Verb[edit]

carbonado

  1. Masculine singular past participle of carbonar.