dzīsla

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See also: dzīslā

Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Baltic *gīsla (or perhaps Proto-Balto-Slavic *giʔ(s)laʔ[1]), from *gʷi-, *gʷey- (< *gʷeyh₃- “to live”) with an extra -la (ancient Indo-European cultures often linked the idea of “life,” “being alive” with visible blood vessels and tendons). Cognates include Lithuanian gýsla, the second half of Old Prussian pettegislo ‎(back vein) (cf. pette “back”), Proto-Slavic *gislā, *žila (Russian жила ‎(žíla, vein, tendon), Ukrainian жила ‎(žíla, žilá), Belarusian жыла ‎(žýla), Bulgarian жила ‎(žíla), Czech žíla, Polish żyła), Latin filum (< *gʷhislom < *gʷiHleh₂) “thread, yarn, fiber, tendon, vein.”[2]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Noun[edit]

dzīsla f (4th declension)

  1. (anatomy) blood vessel (vein, artery)
    asinis rit dzīslās — blood flows in the veins
    mūsu dzīslas ne jau ūdens silts, / karstas asinis ar sirdi runā — in our blood vessels not cold water, / but hot blood speaks with the heart
  2. (botany) leaf vein (part of the leaf vascular system or venation)
    viss augs (driģene) pūkains, vainaglapas ar violetām dzīslām — the whole plant (henbane) is fluffy, with petals with violet veins
    lāpu krāsa kāpostiem pelēki zaļa... lapām lielas dzīslas — the color of cabbage leaves (is) grayish-green... the leaves (have) large veins
  3. (geology) vein (a rock-filled crack or fissure on the Earth's crust)
    dzīslu iežifissure rock (the kind of rock that fills fissures)
    rūdu dzīslas — ore veins
    Volīnijā pēdējā laikā atrastas pegmatīta dzīslas ar unikāliem vīna dzelteniem topāza kristāliem — in Volhynia pegmatite veins with unique wine yellow topaz crystals were recently found
  4. (anatomy) sinew, tendon (fibrous tissue connecting a muscle to its bone)
    es sastiepu kājas dzīslu — I sprained (my) leg tendon
    zemnieks brīnīdamies staipīja savus neveiklos, sastrādātos pirkstus, dzīslas džerkstēja ar nepatīkam skaņu — with wonderment, the peasant stretched his clumsy, overworked fingers, (his) tendons producing an unpleasant noise

Declension[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

In the sense of "blood vessel," dzīsla is a non-technical, colloquial word, more likely to be found in emotive or poetic expressions while vēna and artērija are more technical and typical of scientific discourse (like English arteries when compared to veins).

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rick Derksen (2008), Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon, Brill: Leiden-Boston, page 562
  2. ^ “dzīsla” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7