gudrs

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Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From the same stem as the verb gūt(to gain, to obain) (q.v.). From a parallel form gust (< *gud-ti; compare Lithuanian gùsti(to get accustomed; to teach oneself), present tense gundù) came *gudras, from which gudrs (the u-stem form of the Lithuanian cognate is apparently secondary). The semantic evolution of this word was probably: “(something) caught, grabbed” > “one who by catching got used to, taught himself something” (at first applied to dogs and other animals) > “intelligent,” or then maybe: “one who catches, grabs” > “resourceful” > “smart, intelligent.” (Note that a 17th-cendury dictionary mentions modrs(alert, vigilant) as a synonym of gudrs.) Cognates include Lithuanian gudrùs(intelligent, resourceful), dialectal gùdras.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Adjective[edit]

gudrs (def. gudrais, comp. gudrāks, sup. visgudrākais; adv. gudri)

  1. intelligent, wise (having extensive knowledge, well-developed thinking, rich experience)
    gudrs cilvēks, ārsts‎ ― intelligent person, doctor
    bataljona komandieris - lielisks vīrs, un gudrs: lai kādu jautājumu viņam uzprasi, visu atbildēs, izlasījis veselu bibliotēku‎ ― the battalion commander: a great man, and intelligent: whatever question you asked him, he answered it, he has read a whole library
    vienkāršais cilvēks, visu darbu darītājs, pazīst dabas norises un parādības, darba procesus, pazīst cilvēkus, viņu dzīves daudzveidīgos sakarus un attiecības; tāds cilvēks ir gudrs‎ ― a simple person, who does all the work, knows natural processes and phenomena, (knows) work, knows people, their lives' multifaceted connections and relations; such a person is wise
  2. intelligent, wise (expressing such qualities)
    gudrs skatiens‎ ― wise, intelligent look
    gudras acis‎ ― wise eyes
    gudra seja‎ ― intelligent face
    kad viņš noņem cepuri, tad var redzēt, ka piere viņam augsta un gudra‎ ― when he took his hat off, then we could see that his forehead is high and wise
  3. smart, clever (one who quickly understands, notices, remembers; astute)
    gudrs skolēns, māceklis‎ ― clever student, apprentice
    māmiņa bija lepna par mums, stāstīja, cik mēs nopietni, gudri un saprātīgi bērni‎ ― mom was proud of us, he told (everybody) how we were serious, clever, intelligent children
  4. (of animals) smart, clever (well trained; perceptive)
    gudrs suns, zirgs‎ ― clever dog, horse
    gudri dzīvnieki instinktīvi jūt negaisus cilvēku attiecībās‎ ― clever animals instinctively feel a thunderstorm in human relations (when one is happening)
    gudrais pelēcis laipoja uzmanīgi, it kā zinādams, kas viņam šodien vedams‎ ― the smart gray (horse) maneuvered carefully, as if knowing who he would be taking today
  5. (figuratively, of objects) smart, intelligent
    gudrās mašīnas palīdz radīt celtnes, jūras un Visuma kuģus‎ ― the intelligent machines help creat buildings, ships, and spaceships
  6. (of mental activities) intelligent, clever, wise (which exemplifies the use of intelligence, wisdom)
    gudra doma‎ ― intelligent, wise thought
    gudrs lēmums‎ ― wise decision
    guddra mīlestība‎ ― wise love
    humānismam jābūt gudram‎ ― humanism must be wise
  7. (of activities and their products) intelligent, wise (rich in thoughts, ideas, insights)}
    gudra grāmata, runa, lekcija‎ ― intelligent book, talk, lecture
    gudra tautas paruna: “darbs dara meistaru”‎ ― a wise folk saying: “work makes the master”
  8. smart, resourceful, cunning (who quickly orients himself in many different circumstances, who can use the circumstances to his favor)
    Pēteris - tas bija gudrs: izmācījās par drēbnieku un apprecēja bagātu sievu‎ ― Pēteris, that was a smart one: he studied to be a tailor and then married a rich wife
  9. wise, prudent
    tu biji gudra, mīļā dvēsele, tu gribēji sevi taupīt un sargāt‎ ― you were wise, dear soul, you wanted to save and protect yourself
    bet arī līdzi ņemt zēnu nebija necik gudri, jo mēs varbūt jau pēc dažām stundām dosimies kaujā‎ ― but also to take the boy along was not at all wise, because we may have already been a few hours in the battle (zone)

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Antonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “gudrs”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7