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See also: kakák
- For sense of older brother, semantic loan from Hokkien 哥哥 (ko-ko, “older brother”) and semantic loan from Javanese ꦏꦏꦁ, ꦏꦏ, ꦏꦏꦏ꧀ (kakang, kaka, kakak).
- For sense of older sister, Semantic loan from Malay kakak (“older sister”).
- For sense of form of address to husband in marital relationship, semantic loan from Javanese ꦏꦏꦁ, ꦏꦏ, ꦏꦏꦏ꧀ (kakang, kaka, kakak).
- (literally or figurative, formal) older sibling
- (literally or figurative, chiefly Sumatra and Kalimantan) older sister
- (literally or figurative, chiefly Jakarta and Java) older brother
- (chiefly Jakarta) a form of address to an older person (same generation or one generation before)
- (colloquial) a form of address to any stranger
- In common situations, kakak may be used to address older sibling (brothers or sisters, gender neutral). But, in area with Malay as native language, kakak is only used to address older sisters, as in Standard Malay kakak.
- In formal situations (e.g. to address a customer), kakak may be used to address someone with impression she/he is not 'old person' (youthful nuance).
- “kakak” in Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia, Jakarta: Language Development and Fostering Agency — Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology of the Republic Indonesia, 2016.
- Romanization of .
- sister (older woman or girl having the same parents)
- (rare) sibling (older person who shares same parents)
- (rare) brother (older male sibling)
- term of address for a female acquaintance who is a bit older
kakak (Baybayin spelling ᜃᜃᜃ᜔)