neatkarīgs

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Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

A calque from German unabhängig, coined at the end of the 19th century from ne- +‎ atkarīgs (dependent) (with atkarīgs from atkār(t) (to hang down) +‎ -īgs, and atkārt from at- +‎ kārt (to hang)), together with the related term neatkarība.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Adjective[edit]

neatkarīgs (def. neatkarīgais, comp. neatkarīgāks, sup. visneatkarīgākais; adv. neatkarīgi)

  1. independent, free (such that it is not subject to the control, power or authority of someone else)
    būt neatkarīgam no citiem — to be independent of others
    Rainis ir jauna virziena pārstāvis, neatkarīgs un spilgts mākslinieks, kas ies patstāvīgu ceļu — (the poet) Rainis is the representative of a new movement, an independent and bright artist who goes his own way
    19. gadsimta otrajā pusē zemnieki iepirka mājas par dzimtu un kļuva neatkarīgāki no muižas — in the second half of the 19th century the peasants bought houses for (their) families and became more independent from the (noble) landowner
  2. independent, free (such that it expresses or represents such independence, freedom)
    neatkarīgs materiālais stāvoklisindependent material (= living) situation
    neatkarīgs skatiensindependent look
    neatkarīgs rakstursindependent character
    neatkarīgi uzskatiindependent opinions
    neatkarīga izturēšanāsindependent behavior
    neatkarigs lēmums, spriedumsindependent decision, judgment
    neatkarīga rīcībaindependent action
    tas nodrošināja Leinasaram neatkarīgu un netraucētu dzīvi — this threatened Leinasars' independent and undisturbed life
    laiskā, neatkarīga gaitā viņš piegāja pie meistara — in a lazy, independent walk he went up to the master
  3. independent (not subject to another country or political power)
    neatkarīga valstsindependent country
    Mongolijas Tautas Republika pārvērtusies par brīvu, neatkarīgu, zeļošu valsti — the People's Republic of Mongolia has turned into a free, independent, flourishing country
  4. independent (not linked to or controled by anything else; existing by itself, as a separate entity)
    neatkarīgs laika relejsindependent time relay
    neatkarīga piedziņaindependent drive
    neatkarīgs vārdsindependent word (i.e., not a modifier of another word)
    neatkarīgais mainīgs lielumsindependent variable (e.g., in mathematics)
    ja telpa un laiks būtu neatkarīgi no matērijas, tad tie varētu būt vai nu tikai nepārtraukti, vai arī tikai pārtraukti — if space and time were independent of matter, then they could be either only uninterrupted, or only interrupted

Declension[edit]

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References[edit]

  1. ^ “atkarība” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7