svešs

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Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Baltic *swetyas, from *s(e)we-, a form of the reflexive pronoun *se-. The original meaning was probably “alone, by himself,” hence “one who doesn't belong to any tribe” > “strange, unknown, unheard of.” Cognates include Lithuanian adjective svẽčias, noun svetỹs (foreigner, visitor), Proto-Slavic *svātъ < *swō-to-s “matchmaker; suitor, future spouse” (cf. Russian сват (svat)), Ancient Greek ἕτης (hétēs, appropriate; tribesman) (< *swe-te-s).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Adjective[edit]

svešs (def. svešais, comp. svešāks, sup. vissvešākais; adv. sveši)

  1. (of people) unknown, foreign (which one has not met before)
    svešs zēnsunknown boy
    sveša sievieteunknown woman
    sveša tautaunknown, foreign people
    sanākuši sveši ļaudisunknown people (= strangers) have come
    vairākus no sanāksmes dalībniekiem Tauriņš pazīst, bet ir arī sveši, kurus viņš redz pirmo reiziTauriņš knows several of the people in the meeting, but there are also strangers, whom he sees (now) for the first time
    Ieviņu sūtīt pie saimniekiem ganos Līzei bija žēl, meitene arvien vēl no svešiem baidījāsLīze didn't want to send Ieviņa (little Eve) to the landlord's shepherds, the little girl was always so afraid of strangers
  2. (of objects, abstractions) foreign, of others (belonging to unknown people;belonging to other people)
    svešas mantasproperty of others
    sveša automašīnasomeone else's car
    svešs apģērbssomeone else's clothes
    svešas šūnasforeign cells (from some other body)
    dzīvot, būt svešā maizēto live, to be on someone else's bread (= to live from someone else's resources)
    svešs kažoks nesildasomeone else's coat is not warm (proverb)
    daudz es esmu mācījusies no svešām kļūdām?!have I learned a lot from the mistakes of strangers (= others)?
    ir cilvēki, kuri nevar vienaldzīgi paiet garām svēšam bēdāmthere are people who cannot indifferently pass by the misfortune of others
    es nezinu neko labāku par godīgu darbu; maniem pirkstiem nekad naw pielipis ne santīms svešas naudasI know nothing better than honest work; in my hands there has never been even one cent of someone else's money
  3. of others; unrelated (not part of one's extended family)
    audzināt svešu bērnuto raise someone else's child (= a child unrelated to those who raise him/her)
  4. (of objects, places, phenomena) unknown, unfamiliar, strange, foreign (with which one has no previous experience, of which one has no previous knowledge)
    svešs novadsunknown, unfamiliar region
    sveša pilsētaunknown city
    sveša melodijaunknown, unfamiliar melody
    svešas paražasstrange, foreign, alien customs
    sveša valodaforeign, alien language
    nonākt svešā vietāto come to an unknown place
    iejusties svešos apstakļosto get into strange, unfamiliar circumstances
    Annele pakāpas augstāk skatīties svešo apkārtniAnnele climbed up to have a look at the unknown surroundings
    vecā Sīmaņa nebeidzamie nostāsti par svešām zemēm puikam bija uzdzinuši zināšanu slāpesold Sīmanis' endless tales of foreign lands had driven the boys' thirst for knowledge
    jā, mājās... kur vēl ir tik labi?... bet to cilvēks tā īsti saprot tikai tad, kad liktenis viņu izmētājis pa svešām malām, kur nav ne māju, ne draugu, ne dzīves siltumayes, home... what is so good (as home)?... but people only really understand that when destiny throws them in foreign places, where there is no home, no friend, no warmth
  5. unfamiliar, strange, unusual (which is perceived as unknown, different)
    tīri tāds pazīstams ceļš; būtu diena, tad jau pazītu, bet tumsā dažreiz pašam sava māja liekas svešaa clearly well-known path; if it were day, he would have known it, but in the darkness often even one's own house seems unfamiliar
    Nadīna nedzirdēja; viņa klausījās savas satrauktās sirds dunoņā: tā bija sveša, gluži kā nebūtu pašas sirdsNadīna didn't hear; she was listening to her anxious hearts' rumbles: it was strange, as if it weren't her own heart
  6. (of people) strange, foreign (with whom one shares no interests, no friendship, no spiritual connection)
    ilūzijas bija zudušas, bet patiesība izrādījās tāda, itin nekā viņiem nav kopīga; viņi - pilnīgi sveši cilvēkithe illusions were gone, and truth showed itself, they had nothign in common; they (were) fully foreign people (to each other)
    mani vecāki izšķīrās, un, kad māte apprecējās otrreiz, es viņai kļuvu vēl svešāka, varbūt tādēļ, ka ļoti izskatījos pēc tēvamy parents divorced, and, when (my) mother married again, I became even more foreign to her, maybe because I took very much after (my) father
  7. foreign, alien (not natural, not typical, not normal to someone; not acceptable to someone)
    skaudības jūtas viņam ir svešasfeelings of envy are foreign to him (= he does not feel envy)
    Gētem, kam dzīves jēga bija pati dzīve, Dantes viņpasaules mistika bija svešaDante's otherworldly mystique was foreign to Goethe, to whom the meaning of life was life itself
    šie cilvēki visi bija kara lietām sveši, cerējuši nekad savā mūžā nāves ieročus rokā neņemtthese people were all foreign to the affairs of war, (they) had hoped never in their lives to have to take weapons in (their) hands

Declension[edit]

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References[edit]

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “svešs”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7