uguns

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Latvian[edit]

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 uguns on Latvian Wikipedia
Uguns

Etymology[edit]

From an earlier feminine i-stem ugunis (still attested in old folk songs), from Proto-Baltic *ugnis, from *ungnis, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁n̥gʷnis, the “animate” or “sacred” word for “fire” (there was another, more “parochial” or “profane” term, *péh₂ur, which in Baltic languages survived only as Old Prussian panno). The initial vowel u is irregular; to account for it, some have suggested variation in Indo-European (*egnis ~ *ognis ~ *n̥gnis < *h₁n̥gʷnis), and others the influence of *ūden- on a previous Proto-Baltic *agnis; cf. a-initial relics like Latvian agns (enthusiastic, passionate), Lithuanian agnùs (energetic, strong). Cognates include Lithuanian ugnìs, dialectal ùgnis, ùgnė, Proto-Slavic *ognjь (Old Church Slavonic огнь (ognǐ), Russian, Ukrainian огонь (ogón’), Belarusian агонь (ahón’), Bulgarian огън (ógǎn), Czech oheň, Polish ogień), Sanskrit अग्नि (agní), Latin ignis.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

uguns f (6th declension)

  1. fire (visible light and thermal radiation produced by a body heated to the necessary temperature; flames, group of flames)
    uguns kurasthe fire is burning
    uguns deg krāsnīthe fire is burning in the oven
    uguns apdziestthe fire goes out
    iekurt ugunito kindle the fire
    izdzēst, nodzēst ugunito put out the fire
    nopūst ugunito blow out the fire
    uzšķilt ugunito strike a fire
    kurināt ugunito stoke the fire
    iesviest papīru ugunīto throw paper into the fire
    uguns svelmefire glow
    uzlikt katlu uz ugunsto put a pot on the fire
    sildīties pie ugunsto warm up by the fire
    uguns siena, jūra, vilnisfire wall, see, wave
    uguns pielūgšana, kultsfire worship, cult
    lēna ugunsslow fire (= with a small flame)
    strauja ugunsrapid fire (= with a big, strong flame)
    uguns trakothe fire is raging
    mūžīgā ugunseternal fire
    olimpiskā ugunsOlympic fire
  2. fire (a means of igniting fire, such as matches, lighters, etc., or combustible matter, fuel, etc., used to make fire or keep it burning)
    viens ieprasās: “vai kādam ir uguns? kā uzpīposim, kad būsim paēduši?”someone asked: “does anyone have fire / a light? (or else) how will we smoke, after we eat?”
  3. (figuratively) fire, light (feeling of warmth, often signifying power, strength)
    Meļķis dzēra; patīkama uguns izskrēja caur dzīslāmMeļķis drank; a pleasant fire ran through his veins
    vai kāds vairs prot veco krusta deju, kur bija straujums un plašums? uguns svila dzīslās, un grūti bija norimties viendoes anyone still know the old cross dance, in which there was speed and breadth? fire burned in the vains, and it was difficult to calm down alone
  4. (figuratively, usually plural) fire (bright light; bright color)
    debesis sāk degt saulrieta ugunīsthe sky began to burn in the fires of the sunset
  5. (figuratively) fire (passion, sexual and otherwise; strong enthusiasm)
    Edgara acis liesmoja, viņā noskatoties, un viņa skūpstos bija uguns, no kuras Kristīne nodrebējaEdgar's eyes were ablaze, looking at her, and in his kisses there was a fire from which Kristīne shivered
    kā gan aktieris var tēlot... bez garīgas radošas uguns?how can an actor act... without a creative spiritual fire?
    viņa acīs mirdzēja tāda savāda ugunsin his eyes a peculiar fire was shining
    Lauris bija tas uguns, kas visiem iedvesa dedzību un sparuLauris was that fire which inspired zeal and vigor to all
    revolūcijas uguns vēl neslāpa 1906. gadā; taču līdzskrējēji jau nogāja malā, slēpāsthe revolutionary fire was not stifled in 1906; on the contrary, (its) supporters went into hiding
  6. artificial light(s), light source(s)
    luksoforā deg sarkanā ugunsthe red traffic fire (= light) is on
    pilsētas uguniscity fire (= lights)
    ostas ugunisport fire (= lights)
    bāku ugunsbeacon, lantern fire (= light)
    krāsainās reklāmu ugunisred advertising fires (= lights)
    automobiļa aizmugures ugunisa car's rear fires (= lights)
    logā deg ugunsfire is (= lights are) burning on the window
    krita pavasara krēsla... tramvaji jau brauca ar uguņiem'spring dusk fell... the trams were already riding with their fires (= lights) (on)
  7. (military) shooting with firearms
    atklāt ugunīto open fire
    pārtraukt ugunito cease fire
    artilērijas ugunsartillery fire, gunfire
    tanku, granātu, ložu ugunstank, grenade, bullet fire

Declension[edit]

Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “uguns”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7